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    BibTeX-Key Author / Editor / Organization Title Year Journal / Proceedings / Book BibTeX type Timestamp
    Abraham2009 Abraham, G.; Byrnes, G.B. & Bain, C.A. Short-Term Forecasting of Emergency Inpatient Flow 2009 IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine
    Vol. 13 (3) , pp. 380-388  
    article 1a
    Abstract: Hospital managers have to manage resources effectively, while maintaining a high quality of care. For hospitals where admissions from the emergency department to the wards represent a large proportion of admissions, the ability to forecast these admissions and the resultant ward occupancy is especially useful for resource planning purposes. Since emergency admissions often compete with planned elective admissions, modeling emergency demand may result in improved elective planning as well. We compare several models for forecasting daily emergency inpatient admissions and occupancy. The models are applied to three years of daily data. By measuring their mean square error in a cross-validation framework, we find that emergency admissions are largely random, and hence, unpredictable, whereas emergency occupancy can be forecasted using a model combining regression and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, or a seasonal ARIMA model, for up to one week ahead. Faced with variable admissions and occupancy, hospitals must prepare a reserve capacity of beds and staff. Our approach allows estimation of the required reserve capacity.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Abraham2009,
      author = {Abraham, G. and Byrnes, G. B and Bain, C. A},
      title = {Short-Term Forecasting of Emergency Inpatient Flow},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {13},
      number = {3},
      pages = {380--388},
      url = {http://ww2.cs.mu.oz.au/~gabraham/ed.pdf},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TITB.2009.2014565}
    }
    					
    Aguila2010 Águila, M.I. Security in Music Festivals and Concerts 2010 School: Haaga - Helia -- University of applied science   mastersthesis 2011.08.15
    Abstract: The objective of this thesis is to show the increasing importance of security in music festivals and concerts to everyone interested and involved into this type of events; such as organizers, promoters, suppliers, public authorities and attendees. The aim is to provide enough useful information about security and safety issues that are related to these events, in order to induce organizations to make more secure events.
    The main topic of this research is safety and security issues concerning music festival and con-certs. Concretely, this research examines the challenges of arranging music festivals and con-certs in terms of security, and how beneficial it is for companies and organizations to be aware of the importance of security in this type of events.
    The theoretical framework is focused on Risk Management: what it is, how does it function in music festivals and events; anything related to the Risk Management process, including the security plan and the emergency plan. In addition, anything related to security and safety issues concerning music festivals and concerts is included: legal aspects; health and safety issues; design and site management issues; administration, communications and marketing issues; crowd control; as well as, other important issues to consider after the events have been held.
    The research method chosen for this thesis is the qualitative one. Research was collected by direct observation on concerts, studying music festivals and concert venues’ online sources, studying available resources based on risk management and security in music festivals and concerts; and with the material gathered from interviews conducted to festival and concert organizers, and to concert attendees, in Finland and abroad.
    The results of the research show that most organizations still lack of general awareness on the importance of security in music festivals and concerts. Also many venues do not have the safety measures that are required by professional event producers and organisers and the law, to assure a safe event. Organizations could take example of the new and standard security and safety measures implemented by the Roskilde Festival and the Download Festival, and from the measures taken at all music festival and concert venues in Japan; to improve in security. Moreover, organizations should show more interest and concern on security aspects that af-fect this type of events, in order to provide not only a once in a lifetime experience but also a safe environment for everybody under any unexpected chain of events that could take place.
    BibTeX:
    @mastersthesis{Aguila2010,
      author = {María Isabel Águila},
      title = {Security in Music Festivals and Concerts},
      school = {Haaga - Helia -- University of applied science},
      year = {2010},
      url = {https://publications.theseus.fi/handle/10024/25310}
    }
    					
    Alexander2009 Alexander, D.A. & Klein, S. First responders after disasters: a review of stress reactions, at-risk, vulnerability, and resilience factors 2009 Prehosp Disaster Med
    Vol. 24 (2) , pp. 87-94  
    article 1a
    Abstract: Disasters are widely reported, commonplace events that characteristically leave an enormous legacy of human suffering through death, injury, extensive infrastructural damage, and disorganization to systems and communities. The economic costs may be almost incalculable. Professional and civilian first responders play a vital role in mitigating these effects. However, to maximize their potential with the minimum health and welfare costs to first responders, it is important to have a good understanding of the demands of such work on them, how they cope, and what enables them to fulfill their roles. This review will explore these themes by highlighting important findings and areas of uncertainty.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Alexander2009,
      author = {David A Alexander and Susan Klein},
      title = {First responders after disasters: a review of stress reactions, at-risk, vulnerability, and resilience factors},
      journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {24},
      number = {2},
      pages = {87--94},
      note = {PMID: 19591301},
      url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19591301}
    }
    					
    Al-Tawfiq2012 Al-Tawfiq, J.A. & Memish, Z.A. Mass gathering medicine: a leisure or necessity? 2012 Int J Clin Pract
    Vol. 66 (6) , pp. 530-532  
    article 2013.01.05
    Abstract: With increased travel and the gathering of people at
    recreational, political and religious events, it is suggested
    that mass gathering medicine should be a new service of
    medicine. There is no standardised definition of mass
    gathering which takes in account the total number of
    attendees. However, mass gathering events consist of a large
    number of attendees at a specific event in a specified time.
    Mass gathering events include World Youth Day, Olympics,
    concerts, political rallies, as well as gathering for religious
    events, such as the Hajj (1). Mass gathering is being linked
    to outbreaks of infectious diseases. Thus, it is suggested that
    mass gathering medicine is an essential specialised, interprofessional
    branch of public health. This perspective aims
    to discuss the recent knowledge about mass gathering
    medicine, especially in the events of sport gathering.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Al-Tawfiq2012,
      author = {J. A. Al-Tawfiq and Z. A Memish},
      title = {Mass gathering medicine: a leisure or necessity?},
      journal = {Int J Clin Pract},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {66},
      number = {6},
      pages = {530-532},
      url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1742-1241.2012.02923.x/abstract}
    }
    					
    Arbon2007 Arbon, P. Mass-gathering medicine: a review of the evidence and future directions for research 2007 Prehosp Disaster Med
    Vol. 22 (2) , pp. 131-135  
    article 1a
    Abstract: A review of mass-gathering medicine literature published by the Journal Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, demonstrates the progressive development of our knowledge and understanding of the health effects of mass gatherings and the strategies that appear to contribute positively to effective health services delivery during these events. In addition, the growing need for research that can underpin a more evidence-based approach to planning for and managing these events is apparent. The call for less descriptive and more critical and conceptual analyses has been increasing in volume and, it is argued, the challenge now is to apply research frameworks that can contribute more effectively to science-based, medical practice.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Arbon2007,
      author = {Paul Arbon},
      title = {Mass-gathering medicine: a review of the evidence and future directions for research},
      journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {22},
      number = {2},
      pages = {131--135},
      note = {PMID: 17591185},
      url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17591185}
    }
    					
    Arbon2005 Arbon, P. Planning Medical Coverage for Mass Gatherings in Australia: What We Currently Know 2005 Journal of Emergency Nursing
    Vol. 31 (4) , pp. 346 - 350  
    article 2011.09.09
    BibTeX:
    @article{Arbon2005,
      author = {Paul Arbon},
      title = {Planning Medical Coverage for Mass Gatherings in Australia: What We Currently Know},
      journal = {Journal of Emergency Nursing},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {31},
      number = {4},
      pages = {346 - 350},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S009917670500098X},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jen.2005.03.002}
    }
    					
    Arbon2004 Arbon, P. The development of conceptual models for mass-gathering health 2004 Prehosp Disaster Med
    Vol. 19 (3) , pp. 208-212  
    article 1a
    Abstract: Mass gatherings are an increasingly common feature of modern society. However, descriptive papers that focus on a single event or event type, dominate the literature, and, while these contribute to our understanding of the patient care required at such events, they do not provide an adequate analysis of the health effects of the mass-gathering phenomenon itself. This paper argues for the development of conceptual models and a research template for mass-gathering research. The development of theory and conceptual models would promote a better understanding of the health effects of mass gatherings. Two preliminary conceptual models are presented as a means to encourage further debate about the dominant influences on the health of people where crowds gather and to promote less superficial forms of analysis of the research data. These conceptual models are based on the idea that mass-gathering health can be understood as an inter-relationship between three domains: (1) the biomedical; (2) the environmental; and (3) the psychosocial. Key features influence the rate of injury and illness and characterize each domain. These key features are more or less well-understood and combine to produce an effect--the patient presentation rate, and a response--the health plan. A new element, the latent potential for injury and illness, is introduced as a mechanism for describing a biomedical precursor state important in assessing health risk during mass gatherings.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Arbon2004,
      author = {Paul Arbon},
      title = {The development of conceptual models for mass-gathering health},
      journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {19},
      number = {3},
      pages = {208--212},
      note = {PMID: 15571196},
      url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15571196}
    }
    					
    Arbon2002 Arbon, P. The development of a web-based algorithm for the prediction of patient presentation rates at mass-gatherings. 2002 Australian Journal of Emergency Management
    Vol. 17 (1) , pp. 60-64  
    article 2010.09.28
    BibTeX:
    @article{Arbon2002,
      author = {P. Arbon},
      title = {The development of a web-based algorithm for the prediction of patient presentation rates at mass-gatherings.},
      journal = {Australian Journal of Emergency Management},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {17},
      number = {1},
      pages = {60-64}
    }
    					
    Arbon2001 Arbon, P.; Bridgewater, F.H. & Smith, C. Mass gathering medicine: a predictive model for patient presentation and transport rates 2001 Prehosp Disaster Med
    Vol. 16 (3) , pp. 150-158  
    article 1a
    Abstract: INTRODUCTION: This paper reports on research into the influence of environmental factors (including crowd size, temperature, humidity, and venue type) on the number of patients and the patient problems presenting to first-aid services at large, public events in Australia. Regression models were developed to predict rates of patient presentation and of transportation-to-a-hospital for future mass gatherings. OBJECTIVE: To develop a data set and predictive model that can be applied across venues and types of mass gathering events that is not venue or event specific. Data collected will allow informed event planning for future mass gatherings for which health care services are required. METHODS: Mass gatherings were defined as public events attended by in excess of 25,000 people. Over a period of 12 months, 201 mass gatherings attended by a combined audience in excess of 12 million people were surveyed throughout Australia. The survey was undertaken by St. John Ambulance Australia personnel. The researchers collected data on the incidence and type of patients presenting for treatment and on the environmental factors that may influence these presentations. A standard reporting format and definition of event geography was employed to overcome the event-specific nature of many previous surveys. RESULTS: There are 11,956 patients in the sample. The patient presentation rate across all event types was 0.992/1,000 attendees, and the transportation-to-hospital rate was 0.027/1,000 persons in attendance. The rates of patient presentations declined slightly as crowd sizes increased. The weather (particularly the relative humidity) was related positively to an increase in the rates of presentations. Other factors that influenced the number and type of patients presenting were the mobility of the crowd, the availability of alcohol, the event being enclosed by a boundary, and the number of patient-care personnel on duty. Three regression models were developed to predict presentation rates at future events. CONCLUSIONS: Several features of the event environment influence patient presentation rates, and that the prediction of patient load at these events is complex and multifactorial. The use of regression modeling and close attention to existing historical data for an event can improve planning and the provision of health care services at mass gatherings.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Arbon2001,
      author = {P Arbon and F H Bridgewater and C Smith},
      title = {Mass gathering medicine: a predictive model for patient presentation and transport rates},
      journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {16},
      number = {3},
      pages = {150--158},
      note = {PMID: 11875799},
      url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11875799}
    }
    					
    Athertona2005 Athertona, W.; Harpera, W. & Abrams, K. A year's trauma admissions and the effect of the weather 2005 Injury, Int. J. Care Injured
    Vol. 36 , pp. 40-46  
    article 2010.09.29
    BibTeX:
    @article{Athertona2005,
      author = {W.G. Athertona and W.M. Harpera and K.R. Abrams},
      title = {A year's trauma admissions and the effect of the weather},
      journal = {Injury, Int. J. Care Injured},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {36},
      pages = {40-46}
    }
    					
    Australia_volunteers Auld, C. & Cuskelly, G. Volunteer Management: A Guide to Good Practice 2000   manual 2012.03.20
    BibTeX:
    @manual{Australia_volunteers,
      author = {Christopher Auld and Graham Cuskelly},
      title = {Volunteer Management: A Guide to Good Practice},
      year = {2000},
      url = {http://www.ausport.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/115556/2._Managing_Volunteers.pdf}
    }
    					
    Avery1982 Avery, J.G.; Chitnis, J.-G.; Daly, P.J. & Pollock, G.T. Medical planning for a major event: the Pope's visit to Coventry Airport, 30 May 1982 1982 British Medical Journal
    Vol. 285 , pp. 51-53  
    article 2011.12.28
    BibTeX:
    @article{Avery1982,
      author = {J G Avery and J-G Chitnis and P J Daly and G T Pollock},
      title = {Medical planning for a major event: the Pope's visit to Coventry Airport, 30 May 1982},
      journal = {British Medical Journal},
      year = {1982},
      volume = {285},
      pages = {51-53},
      url = {http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/picrender.cgi?artid=332060&blobtype=pdf}
    }
    					
    Baird2010 Baird, M.B.; O'Connor, R.E.; Williamson, A.L.; Sojka, B.; Alibertis, K. & Brady, W.J. The impact of warm weather on mass event medical need: a review of the literature 2010 The American Journal of Emergency Medicine
    Vol. 28 (2) , pp. 224-229  
    article 1a
    Abstract: Over the last 20 years, interest in medical need at mass events has increased. Many studies have been published identifying the characteristics of such events that significantly impact the number of patients who seek care. Investigators agree that weather is one of the most important variables. We performed a literature search using several biomedical databases (MEDLINE via PubMed, the Cochrane database, BMJ's Clinical Evidence compendium, and Google Scholar) for articles addressing the effect of weather on medical need at mass events. This search resulted in 8 focused articles and several other resources from the reference sections of these publications. We found that the early literature is composed of case reports and predominantly subjective observations concerning the impact of weather on medical need. Most investigators agree upon a positive relationship between heat/humidity and the frequency of patient presentation. More recent authors make attempts at quantifying the relationship and propose prediction models for patient volume and medical personnel requirements. We present an ancestral review of these studies, discuss their results collectively, and propose a simplified algorithm for predicting patient volume at mass events. This review is intended for event planners and mass event emergency medical personnel for planning future events. We also hope to stimulate further study to develop and verify prediction models.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Baird2010,
      author = {Matthew B. Baird and Robert E. O'Connor and Allen L. Williamson and Benjamin Sojka and Kostas Alibertis and William J. Brady},
      title = {The impact of warm weather on mass event medical need: a review of the literature},
      journal = {The American Journal of Emergency Medicine},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {28},
      number = {2},
      pages = {224--229},
      url = {http://www.ajemjournal.com/article/S0735-6757(08)00783-3/abstract},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2008.10.034}
    }
    					
    Barbeschi2010 Barbeschi, M.; Isla, N.; Davis, S. & Nunn, M. Framing Mass Gatherings as a New Discipline – a modern paideia 2010 Lancet Conferences: Mass Gathering Medicine   inproceedings 2011.08.15
    Abstract: Mass gatherings have grown in visibility and changed in character in past decades. The drivers of
    this change are geopolitical: evolving perceptions of security concerns, socioeconomic conditions,
    globalisation of disease, scientific progress, and development of travel and mass communications
    technologies.1 This change creates new challenges for organisers. A broad spectrum of preparatory
    concerns is affected: existing public health structures; the need for integrated planning frameworks
    and methods (especially concerning security and safety); provision of acute healthcare; and the
    ability of public health systems to anticipate, prevent, identify and mitigate communicable disease
    outbreaks and other public health threats. Measuring the performance of mass gatherings planners,
    therefore, is about more than assessing venues built,2 ticket sales,3 TV viewing figures, media
    interest, revenue, and sponsorship. The following five elements characterise successful planning
    and conduct of a mass gathering. First, holistic planning of mass gatherings—the various aspects
    of strategic planning for legacy, capacity building, systems integration, command and control, for
    example, operate in different timeframes and changing contexts. An early start and a holistic
    planning approach allow each system to smooth out the jagged edges of the others. Planning in
    this context involves two concepts: coping, and shaping. Second, integrated risk assessment—
    external pressures, unexpected events, and international demands impact differently on each
    component of the risk management process depending on the discipline or ministry making the
    assessment. Decision-making should therefore be based on a strategic risk assessment process
    developed specifically for the mass gathering in question, and involving all stakeholders. Third,
    legacy planning—maximisation of legacy requires early planning. The public health component,
    including the physical activity legacy for mass sport events, is clearly central, but so is ability to
    measure impact of interventions, requiring collection of data around specific indicators before and
    after the mass gathering. Fourth, multidisciplinary approaches—multidisciplinary integration of the
    systems constituting the health infrastructure is a requirement for running a mass gathering, and is
    crucial for ensuring a positive public health legacy. Organisational structures and operational 'silos'
    should not be replaced, but harmonised. Finally, adherence to international norms and standards—
    international instruments like the International Health Regulations (2005) must be implemented in
    full, by all participants (organising committees, sponsors, teams, visitors, etc.). This must be taken
    into specific consideration in planning. To address such multidimensional, multidisciplinary
    complexity, mass gatherings should be framed as a new academic and scientific discipline,
    equivalent to the classical paideia.4 The mass gathering paideia must provide the necessary
    education by fusing study of a range of fields, experiences, and disciplines.

    1. Broadcasting skyrockets for large mass gatherings. CBS paid US$394 000 for the right to broadcast the Rome Summer
    Olympic Games in 1960, and US$375 million for the Nagano Winter Games in 1998; NBC paid $3.5 billion for the broadcast
    rights of all Olympic Games from 2000 to 2008.

    2. For the 1960 Rome Olympics, a total of 33 buildings of between one and five storeys were built, containing 1348 flats. The
    2008 Beijing Olympic Village occupies an area of 66 hectares, containing 22 six-storey buildings and 20 nine-storey
    buildings, with a per capita living area of 22 square metres. To ensure the athletes slept well, each bed was 2.2 m long, with
    a special stool added to the end of the bed for very large competitors like Chinese basketball star Yao Ming, who is 2.26 m
    tall.

    3. The 2006 FIFA World Cup in Germany was sold out, with 3 359 439 spectators attending 64 games in 12 stadiums, and a
    total cumulative TV audience of 26.29 billion.

    4. Paideia (παιδεία) was a system of instruction in Classical Athens in which students were given a well-rounded cultural
    education. Subjects included rhetoric, grammar, mathematics, music, philosophy, geography, natural history, and
    gymnastics.

    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Barbeschi2010,
      author = {Maurizio Barbeschi and Nicolas Isla and Stephanie Davis and Mark Nunn},
      title = {Framing Mass Gatherings as a New Discipline – a modern paideia},
      booktitle = {Lancet Conferences: Mass Gathering Medicine},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://conferences.thelancet.com/sites/massgatherings/files/presentations/barbeschi.pdf}
    }
    					
    Bargues2001 Bargues, L.; VILLEVIEILLE, T.; GODREUIL, C.; ROUQUETTE, I. & ROUSSEAU, J.-M. Coup de chaleur d’exercice 2001 Urgence Pratique
    Vol. 46 , pp. 11-15  
    article 2012.05.15
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bargues2001,
      author = {Laurent Bargues and Thierry VILLEVIEILLE and Christian GODREUIL and Isabelle ROUQUETTE and Jean-Marie ROUSSEAU},
      title = {Coup de chaleur d’exercice},
      journal = {Urgence Pratique},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {46},
      pages = {11-15},
      url = {http://www.urgence-pratique.com/sites/default/files/medias/fichiers/articles/coup_de_chaleur_d_exercice.pdf}
    }
    					
    Bassil2008a Bassil, K. & Cole, D. Use of 911 Ambulance Dispatch Data for SyndromicSurveillance of Heat-related Illness in Toronto 2008   inproceedings 2011.08.15
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Bassil2008a,
      author = {Kate Bassil and Donald Cole},
      title = {Use of 911 Ambulance Dispatch Data for SyndromicSurveillance of Heat-related Illness in Toronto},
      year = {2008},
      url = {http://www.utoronto.ca/cuhi/seminars/supportingdocs/BassilandColeSlides.pdf}
    }
    					
    Bassil2008 Bassil, K.L. The relationship between temperature and 911 medical dispatch data for heat-related illness in toronto, 2002-2005: an application of syndromic surveillance 2008 School: University of Toronto   phdthesis 2011.06.24
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{Bassil2008,
      author = {Katherine L. Bassil},
      title = {The relationship between temperature and 911 medical dispatch data for heat-related illness in toronto, 2002-2005: an application of syndromic surveillance},
      school = {University of Toronto},
      year = {2008},
      url = {https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/17296/1/Bassil_Katherine_L_200811_PhD_thesis.pdf}
    }
    					
    Bassil2009 Bassil, K.L.; Cole, D.C.; Moineddin, R.; Craig, A.M.; Lou, W.Y.W.; Schwartz, B. & Rea, E. Temporal and spatial variation of heat-related illness using 911 medical dispatch data 2009 Environmental Research
    Vol. 109 , pp. 600-606  
    article 2011.06.23
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bassil2009,
      author = {Kate L. Bassil and Donald C. Cole and Rahim Moineddin and Alan M. Craig and W. Y. Wendy Lou and Brian Schwartz and Elizabeth Rea},
      title = {Temporal and spatial variation of heat-related illness using 911 medical dispatch data},
      journal = {Environmental Research},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {109},
      pages = {600-606}
    }
    					
    Bernardo2004 Bernardo, L.M. & Veenema, T.G. Pediatric Emergency Preparedness for Mass Gatherings and Special Events 2004 Disaster Management & Response
    Vol. 2 , pp. 118-122  
    article 2011.11.13
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bernardo2004,
      author = {Lisa M. Bernardo and Tener G. Veenema},
      title = {Pediatric Emergency Preparedness for Mass Gatherings and Special Events},
      journal = {Disaster Management & Response},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {2},
      pages = {118-122},
      url = {http://www.disastermgmt.com/article/PIIS1540248703001445/references}
    }
    					
    Biback2012 Biback, S. Understanding the risks and perceptions of mass gatherings 2012   electronic 2013.01.05
    BibTeX:
    @electronic{Biback2012,
      author = {Sandy Biback},
      title = {Understanding the risks and perceptions of mass gatherings},
      year = {2012},
      url = {http://www.corporatemeetingsnetwork.ca/news/Understanding-the-risks-and-perceptions-of-mass-gatherings-373-1.html}
    }
    					
    Bibi2002 Bibi, H.; Nutman, A.; Shoseyov, D.; Shalom, M.; Peled, R.; Kivity, S. & Nutman, J. Prediction of Emergency Department Visits for Respiratory Symptoms Using an Artificial Neural Network 2002 Chest
    Vol. 122 , pp. 627-1632  
    article 2010.09.29
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bibi2002,
      author = {Haim Bibi and Amir Nutman and David Shoseyov and Mendel Shalom and Ronit Peled and Shmuel Kivity and Jacob Nutman},
      title = {Prediction of Emergency Department Visits for Respiratory Symptoms Using an Artificial Neural Network},
      journal = {Chest},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {122},
      pages = {627-1632}
    }
    					
    Billows2010 Billows, G.L. EMS in the fast lane - Mass-gathering medicine at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway 2010 JEMS - Supplement : Driving the course care , pp. 11   article 2011.11.18
    BibTeX:
    @article{Billows2010,
      author = {Geoffrey L. Billows},
      title = {EMS in the fast lane -- Mass-gathering medicine at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway},
      journal = {JEMS -- Supplement : Driving the course care},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {11},
      url = {http://www.jems.com/article/major-incidents/ems-fast-lane}
    }
    					
    Boatright2004 Boatright, J.R. Emergency Medical Service—Mass Gathering Action Plans 2004 J Emerg Nurs
    Vol. 30 , pp. 253-256  
    article 2011.06.22
    BibTeX:
    @article{Boatright2004,
      author = {Jan R. Boatright},
      title = {Emergency Medical Service—Mass Gathering Action Plans},
      journal = {J Emerg Nurs},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {30},
      pages = {253-256},
      url = {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0099176704000765}
    }
    					
    Bock1992 Bock, H.C.; Cordell, W.H.; Hawk, A.C. & Bowdish, G.E. Demographics of emergency medical care at the Indianapolis 500 mile race (1983-1990). 1992 Ann Emerg Med. , pp. 1204-1207   article 2011.06.22
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bock1992,
      author = {H. C. Bock and W. H. Cordell and A. C. Hawk and G. E. Bowdish},
      title = {Demographics of emergency medical care at the Indianapolis 500 mile race (1983-1990).},
      journal = {Ann Emerg Med.},
      year = {1992},
      pages = {1204-1207},
      url = {http://www.annemergmed.com/article/S0196-0644(05)81747-0/abstract}
    }
    					
    Boenisch2010 Bönisch, G. & Röbel, S. Interview with the Love Parade Crowd Manager - 'Many More Visitors Came than We Expected' 2010 Der Spiegel   article 2011.08.14
    BibTeX:
    @article{Boenisch2010,
      author = {Georg Bönisch and Sven Röbel},
      title = {Interview with the Love Parade Crowd Manager -- 'Many More Visitors Came than We Expected'},
      journal = {Der Spiegel},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/0,1518,711099,00.html}
    }
    					
    Borjesson2010 Borjesson, M.; Dugmore, D.; Mellwig, K.-P.; van Buuren, F.; Serratosa, L.; Solberg, E.E. & Pelliccia, A. Time for action regarding cardiovascular emergency care at sports arenas: a lesson from the arena study 2010 European Heart Journal   article 1a
    Abstract: Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is a common cause of death worldwide,
    most often triggered by ventricular fibrillation or asystole.1
    The estimated prevalence in adult individuals (.35 years) is
    about 1 in 1000 per year in the USA.2 The major determinant
    for survival in such instances is the time to defibrillation,1 with
    the critical interval from the onset of a lethal arrhythmia to subsequent
    shock, to restore sinus rhythm, being 3–5 min.2 The efficacy
    of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) to prevent SCAs
    has been demonstrated in large public settings, such as airports and
    casinos3,4 and their implementation in other crowded venues has
    also been advocated.5
    Large sports arenas typically gather several thousands of spectators,
    including adult and senior individuals with risk factor for
    cardiac events, repeatedly exposed to intense emotion.6 Although
    much attention is put on the athletes on the field, most cases of
    SCA in this setting will occur among spectators, and simply watching
    (emotional) sports events has been demonstrated to trigger
    cardiac events.7
    The National Association of Emergency Medical Services Physicians
    (NAEMSP) recommends a medical action plan (MAP),
    including AEDs, as a blue-print for delivering emergency medical
    care at mass gathering events (e.g. more than 1000 persons).8 In
    the USA, moreover, AEDs are recommended in large sports facilities
    and gyms, and also in the school setting when the time to defibrillation
    exceeds the critical threshold of 5 min.9,10 On the
    contrary, no recommendations regarding acute cardiovascular
    care at sports arenas exist at present in Europe, and the current
    implementation of medical action plans (including AEDs) in
    major continental sports arenas is largely unknown.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Borjesson2010,
      author = {Borjesson, Mats and Dugmore, Dorian and Mellwig, Klaus-Peter and van Buuren, Frank and Serratosa, Luis and Solberg, Eric E. and Pelliccia, Antonio},
      title = {Time for action regarding cardiovascular emergency care at sports arenas: a lesson from the arena study},
      journal = {European Heart Journal},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2010/03/02/eurheartj.ehq006.short},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehq006}
    }
    					
    Borjesson2011 Borjesson, M.; Serratosa, L.; Carre, F.; Corrado, D.; Drezner, J.; Dugmore, D.L.; Heidbuchel, H.H.; Mellwig, K.-P.; Panhuyzen-Goedkoop, N.M.; Papadakis, M.; Rasmusen, H.; Sharma, S.; Solberg, E.E.; van Buuren, F. & Pelliccia, A. Consensus document regarding cardiovascular safety at sports arenas 2011 European Heart Journal
    Vol. 32 (17) , pp. 2119-2124  
    article 1a
    Abstract: Mass gathering events in sports arenas create challenges regarding the cardiovascular safety of both athletes and spectators. A comprehensive medical action plan, to ensure properly applied cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and wide availability and use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs), is essential to improving survival from sudden cardiac arrest at sporting events. This paper outlines minimum standards for cardiovascular care to assist in the planning of mass gathering sports events across Europe with the intention of local adaptation at individual sports arenas, to ensure the full implementation of the chain of survival.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Borjesson2011,
      author = {Borjesson, Mats and Serratosa, Luis and Carre, Francois and Corrado, Domenico and Drezner, Jonathan and Dugmore, Dorian L. and Heidbuchel, Hein H. and Mellwig, Klaus-Peter and Panhuyzen-Goedkoop, Nicole M. and Papadakis, Michael and Rasmusen, Hanne and Sharma, Sanjay and Solberg, Erik E. and van Buuren, Frank and Pelliccia, Antonio},
      title = {Consensus document regarding cardiovascular safety at sports arenas},
      journal = {European Heart Journal},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {32},
      number = {17},
      pages = {2119-2124},
      url = {http://www.sportmedicine.ru/recomendations/consensus_document_regarding_cardiovascular_safety_at_sports_arenas.pdf},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehr178}
    }
    					
    Bouchama2010 Bouchama, A. Heatstroke and Mass Gathering 2010 The Lancet Conferences -- Mass Gathering Medicine   inproceedings 2011.06.26
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Bouchama2010,
      author = {Abderrezak Bouchama},
      title = {Heatstroke and Mass Gathering},
      booktitle = {The Lancet Conferences -- Mass Gathering Medicine},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://conferences.thelancet.com/massgatherings/content/presentations}
    }
    					
    Bowdish1992 Bowdish, G.E.; Cordell, W.H.; Bock, H.C. & Vukov, L.F. Using regression analysis to predict emergency patient volume at the Indianapolis 500 mile race 1992 Ann Emerg Med. , pp. 1200-1203   article 2011.06.22
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Emergency physicians often plan and provide on-site medical care for mass gatherings. Most of the mass gathering literature is descriptive. Only a few studies have looked at factors such as crowd size, event characteristics, or weather in predicting numbers and types of patients at mass gatherings.

    PURPOSE: We used regression analysis to relate patient volume on Race Day at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway to weather conditions and race characteristics.

    METHODS: Race Day weather data for the years 1983 to 1989 were obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Data regarding patients treated on 1983 to 1989 Race Days were obtained from the facility hospital (Hannah Emergency Medical Center) data base. Regression analysis was performed using weather factors and race characteristics as independent variables and number of patients seen as the dependent variable. Data from 1990 were used to test the validity of the model.

    RESULTS: There was a significant relationship between dew point (which is calculated from temperature and humidity) and patient load (P less than .01). Dew point, however, failed to predict patient load during the 1990 race. No relationships could be established between humidity, sunshine, wind, or race characteristics and number of patients.

    CONCLUSION: Although higher dew point was associated with higher patient load during the 1983 to 1989 races, dew point was a poor predictor of patient load during the 1990 race. Regression analysis may be useful in identifying relationships between event characteristics and patient load but is probably inadequate to explain the complexities of crowd behavior and too simplified to use as a prediction tool.

    BibTeX:
    @article{Bowdish1992,
      author = {G. E. Bowdish and W. H. Cordell and H. C. Bock and L. F. Vukov},
      title = {Using regression analysis to predict emergency patient volume at the Indianapolis 500 mile race},
      journal = {Ann Emerg Med.},
      year = {1992},
      pages = {1200-1203},
      url = {http://www.annemergmed.com/article/S0196-0644(05)81746-9/abstract}
    }
    					
    Boyer1999 Boyer, C.; Ammirati, C.; Thiebaut, H. & Nemitz, B. Couverture médicale des rassemblements de foule : essai de modélisation 1999 Médecine de catastrophe - urgences collectives
    Vol. 2 , pp. 24-30  
    article 2012.06.11
    Abstract: L'objectif de cet article est d'analyser les facteurs de risque et les besoins médicaux pour les rassemblements de plus de 5 000 personnes en France. Une hypothèse sur un nombre d'équipe médical nécessaire pour 10 000 spectateurs en fonction du type d'événement a été avancée à partir d'un calcul ≪ temps-médecin ≫. Pour cela, un questionnaire a été envoyé à tous les Samu et SDIS de France et la littérature a été étudiée ; 179 événements ont été rapportés et analysés. L'étude statistique comparée à celle de la littérature nous a permis d'évaluer le nombre et la gravité des pathologies en fonction du type d'événement et de la quantité de population. II ressort de cette étude que pour un certain nombre d'événements, en particulier le football et les concerts de musique, il est possible de calculer une couverture médicale suffisante et pertinente pour 95 % de l'ensemble des événements, en tenant compte des probabilités de risques médicaux (issues des statistiques), du type de couverture médicale envisagée (médicalisation ou non des postes de secours, présence d'un poste médical avancé et/ou d'un poste de commandement), du temps consacré au tri et à la prise en charge des pathologies. Cette approche objective ne prend pas en compte les risques non connus par le responsable médical et la situation de catastrophe qui peut en découler. Afin d'infirmer ou confirmer ces hypothèses, un observatoire national a été crée à Amiens au Samu 80. Il permettra à partir de fiches types envoyées à tous les Samu et SDIS de France de recueillir des données précises sur les aspects médicaux de chaque rassemblement de foule.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Boyer1999,
      author = {C. Boyer and C. Ammirati and H. Thiebaut and B. Nemitz},
      title = {Couverture médicale des rassemblements de foule : essai de modélisation},
      journal = {Médecine de catastrophe -- urgences collectives},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {2},
      pages = {24-30},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/12798479}
    }
    					
    Boyle2008 Boyle, J.; Lind, J.; Green, D.; Crilly, J.; Miller, P.; Wallis, M.; Jessup, M. & Fitzgerald, G. Analysis of Patient Presentation and Admission Data for Prediction Modelling 2008 Australia's Health Informatics Conference   inproceedings 2011.06.23
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Boyle2008,
      author = {J Boyle and J Lind and D Green and J Crilly and P Miller and M Wallis and M Jessup and G Fitzgerald},
      title = {Analysis of Patient Presentation and Admission Data for Prediction Modelling},
      booktitle = {Australia's Health Informatics Conference},
      year = {2008}
    }
    					
    Breysse2009 Breysse, D. Université Numérique Ingénierie et Technologie Cyber Ingénierie des Risques en Génie Civil 2009   electronic 2013.01.30
    BibTeX:
    @electronic{Breysse2009,
      author = {D. Breysse},
      title = {Cyber Ingénierie des Risques en Génie Civil},
      year = {2009},
      url = {http://www.unit.eu/cours/cyberrisques/etage_1/co/Module_Etage_1_14.html}
    }
    					
    Brosset2008 Brosset, C.; ABRIAT, A.; SAGUI, E. & BRÉGIGEON, M. Coup de chaleur d’exercice : comment le reconnaitre ? 2008 Réanoxyno
    Vol. 24 , pp. 19-20  
    article 2012.05.15
    BibTeX:
    @article{Brosset2008,
      author = {C Brosset and A ABRIAT and E SAGUI and M BRÉGIGEON},
      title = {Coup de chaleur d’exercice : comment le reconnaitre ?},
      journal = {Réanoxyno},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {24},
      pages = {19-20},
      url = {http://www.carum.org/reanoxyo_24.pdf}
    }
    					
    Burdick2005 Burdick, T.E. Wilderness event medicine: planning for mass gatherings in remote areas 2005 Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
    Vol. 3 (4) , pp. 249-258  
    article 1a
    Abstract: BACKGROUND An increasing number of large recreational events are taking place in remote environments where medical care is far away. Such events include adventure races and large outdoor trips. Wilderness event medicine (WEM) has been previously defined as the healthcare response at any discrete event with more than 200 persons located more than 1h from hospital treatment. However, there is little literature describing the steps for providing medical care at such events. METHODS This article provides a framework for planning and executing WEM. It reviews the published data on wilderness injury and illness rates and describes the nature of injuries as they relate to specific activities. The article then discusses the three stages of WEM: pre-event planning, medical treatment at the event, and post-event tasks. RESULTS Wilderness events include myriad activities, including orienteering, mountain biking, mountaineering, and whitewater paddling. The injury and illness rates are in the range of 1-10 per 1000 person-days of exposure, with rates one order of magnitude greater for events which last many days, include extremes of environment (heat, altitude), or are competitive in nature. Professional adventure racers may present for medical evaluation at rates as high as 1000 encounters per 1000 racer-days. Injuries depend largely on activity. Illnesses are mostly gastrointestinal, 'flu-like' malaise, or related to the event environment, such as humidity or altitude. Providing medical care requires the proper staff, equipment, and contingency plans. The remoteness of these events mandates different protocols than would be used at an urban mass gathering. CONCLUSIONS WEM will likely continue to grow and evolve as a specialty. Additional reports from wilderness events, perhaps facilitated through a web-based incident reporting system, will allow medical providers to improve the quality of care given at remote events. Research into wilderness activity physiology will also be useful in understanding the prevention and treatment of injuries and illnesses encountered.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Burdick2005,
      author = {Burdick, Timothy E},
      title = {Wilderness event medicine: planning for mass gatherings in remote areas},
      journal = {Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {3},
      number = {4},
      pages = {249--258},
      note = {PMID: 17292043},
      url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17292043},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2004.11.007}
    }
    					
    Carpentier2007 Carpentier, J.-P. & Saby, R. Coup de chaleur du sportif 2007 Urgence Pratique
    Vol. 80 , pp. 5-12  
    article 2012.05.15
    BibTeX:
    @article{Carpentier2007,
      author = {Jean-Pierre Carpentier and René Saby},
      title = {Coup de chaleur du sportif},
      journal = {Urgence Pratique},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {80},
      pages = {5-12},
      url = {http://www.urgence-pratique.com/sites/default/files/medias/fichiers/articles/coup_de_chaleur_du_sportif.pdf}
    }
    					
    Caruso2011 Caruso, A.T. Concert and Special Event EMS 2011 EMSworld website  misc 2011.06.24
    BibTeX:
    @misc{Caruso2011,
      author = {Andrew T. Caruso},
      title = {Concert and Special Event EMS},
      year = {2011},
      url = {http://www.emsworld.com/web/online/Education/Concert-and-Special-Event-EMS/5$10271}
    }
    					
    Chang2010 Chang, W.-H.; Chang, K.-S.; Huang, C.-S.; Huang, M.-Y.; Chien, D.-K. & Tsai, C.-H. Mass Gathering Emergency Medicine: A Review of the Taiwan Experience of Long-distance Swimming Across Sun-Moon Lake 2010
    Vol. 4 (2) , pp. 53-68  
    article 1a
    BibTeX:
    @article{Chang2010,
      author = {Chang, Wen-Han and Chang, Kuo-Song and Huang, Chien-Shuan and Huang, Ming-Yuan and Chien, Ding-Kuo and Tsai, Cheng-Ho},
      title = {Mass Gathering Emergency Medicine: A Review of the Taiwan Experience of Long-distance Swimming Across Sun-Moon Lake},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {4},
      number = {2},
      pages = {53--68},
      url = {http://www.sgecm.org.tw/db/Jour/2/201006/1.pdf}
    }
    					
    Chang2000 Chang, E.C.; Koval, E.; Freer, L. & Kraus, S. Planning for an annual episodic mass gathering: emergency department and clinic utilization in Yellowstone 2000 Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
    Vol. 11 (4) , pp. 257-261  
    article 1a
    Abstract: textlessptextgreaterObjectivetextlessbr/textgreaterPlanning and providing emergency and primary care for a large transient population of visitors and employees in a national park can be problematic. Furthermore, planning for emergency and primary health care needs of visitors and itinerant workers in a wilderness area national park has not been well documented. A study was performed to analyze emergency and primary health care utilization in a national park.Methodstextlessbr/textgreaterData was gathered from all patients presenting to Lake Hospital Emergency Department in Yellowstone in 1995, and a retrospective chart review was performed.Resultstextlessbr/textgreaterTwo distinct populations with different health care needs were identified.Conclusiontextlessbr/textgreaterUtilization analysis revealed differences between conventional mass gatherings and the mass gatherings in Yellowstone. Because of the unique conditions and populations found in a wilderness area, conventional mass gathering emergency medical service models may not be an appropriate model for planning health care in a national park. Analysis of utilization data can help plan resources for emergency and primary health care for a park population.textless/ptextgreater
    BibTeX:
    @article{Chang2000,
      author = {Chang, Eric C. and Koval, Elizabeth and Freer, Luanne and Kraus, Sue},
      title = {Planning for an annual episodic mass gathering: emergency department and clinic utilization in Yellowstone},
      journal = {Wilderness & Environmental Medicine},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {11},
      number = {4},
      pages = {257--261},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1080603200708234},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/80/1080-6032(2000)011[0257:PFAAEM]2.3.CO;2}
    }
    					
    Chapman1982 Chapman, K.R.; Carmichael, F.J. & Goode, J.E. Medical services for outdoor rock music festivals 1982 Canadian Medical Association Journal
    Vol. 126 (8) , pp. 935-938  
    article 2011_a
    Abstract: This paper describes the medical services provided at an outdoor rock music festival near Toronto and reviews similar services at other outdoor concerts as reported in the literature. Between 0.5% and 1.5% of concertgoers were reported to have used medical services, proportions that may be useful in planning for future festivals. Most of the medical problems encountered were minor, although life-threatening problems occasionally occurred. Alcohol and drug abuse were common but led to major medical problems in only small proportions of patients. Guidelines for planning are suggested that include recommendations about facilities, supplies and equipment, transportation and communications, staffing and procedures. The need for liaison with the concert promoters, the police, ambulance officials and local hospital personnel is noted, and the use of the nonmedical ancillary staff is encouraged.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Chapman1982,
      author = {Chapman, K R and Carmichael, F J and Goode, J E},
      title = {Medical services for outdoor rock music festivals},
      journal = {Canadian Medical Association Journal},
      year = {1982},
      volume = {126},
      number = {8},
      pages = {935--938},
      note = {PMID: 7074491},
      url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1862986/pdf/canmedaj01365-0059.pdf}
    }
    					
    Corrado2011 Corrado, D. & Thiene, G. Sudden cardiac death in marathon runners: can it be prevented? 2011 European Heart Journal
    Vol. 32 (21)  
    article 2011.11.17
    BibTeX:
    @article{Corrado2011,
      author = {D. Corrado and G. Thiene},
      title = {Sudden cardiac death in marathon runners: can it be prevented?},
      journal = {European Heart Journal},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {32},
      number = {21}
    }
    					
    efo41156 Cudaback, B. MAss Gathering Venues : Identifying Key Components to a pre-incident Plan to Address the New Dallas Cowboys Stadium 2007   techreport 2011.06.27
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{efo41156,
      author = {Brian Cudaback},
      title = {MAss Gathering Venues : Identifying Key Components to a pre-incident Plan to Address the New Dallas Cowboys Stadium},
      year = {2007},
      url = {http://www.usfa.dhs.gov/pdf/efop/efo41156.pdf}
    }
    					
    Deakin2007 Deakin, C.D.; Thompson, F.; Gibson, C. & Green, M. Effects of international football matches on ambulance call profiles and volumes during the 2006 World Cup 2007 Emergency Medicine Journal : EMJ
    Vol. 24 (6) , pp. 405-407  
    article 1a
    BibTeX:
    @article{Deakin2007,
      author = {Deakin, Charles D and Thompson, Fizz and Gibson, Caroline and Green, Mark},
      title = {Effects of international football matches on ambulance call profiles and volumes during the 2006 World Cup},
      journal = {Emergency Medicine Journal : EMJ},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {24},
      number = {6},
      pages = {405--407},
      note = {PMID: 17513536 PMCID: 2658274},
      url = {http://en.scientificcommons.org/57892678},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emj.2007.046920}
    }
    					
    Dhondt2007 Dhondt, E. Emergency physician managed triage at a rock concert avoids overload at the local emergency department (ED) [poster] 2007 15th World Congress on Disaster and Emergency Medicine   inproceedings 2013.03.06
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Dhondt2007,
      author = {Erwin Dhondt},
      title = {Emergency physician managed triage at a rock concert avoids overload at the local emergency department (ED) [poster]},
      booktitle = {15th World Congress on Disaster and Emergency Medicine},
      year = {2007},
      url = {http://homepages.ulb.ac.be/ccloquet/files/Dhondt2007.pdf}
    }
    					
    Dolney2006 Dolney, T.J. & Sheridan, S.C. The relationship between extreme heat and ambulance response calls for the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 2006 Environmental Research
    Vol. 101 (1) , pp. 94-103  
    article 1a
    Abstract: Concern over the impact of extreme heat upon human health has increased in recent years. Though much research has evaluated the relationships between the two, few studies have attempted to quantify this vulnerability on a sub-metropolitan area level. Using a Geographic Information System (GIS), ambulance calls for a 4-year period from 1999 to 2002 was analyzed in relation to extreme heat for the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Ambulance response calls were plotted on a map to understand the spatial variability of where calls significantly increase above normal levels during oppressively hot days. Census data were used to identify the demographic characteristics of the population within these areas. Statistical tests were also used to assess the degree of correlation among different meteorological variables and the ambulance call data. Over the 4-year period, the average number of ambulance calls increases by 10 percent over normal levels on those days considered oppressively hot. A change in the spatial pattern of calls also occurs on such days. The urban core, with the greatest density of calls, experiences the greatest absolute percentage increase in calls from normal on oppressive days. However, it is some areas of the city located along the shore of Lake Ontario, where a high majority of the population goes to cool down, that demonstrate the greatest percentage increase in calls. Other areas of the city exhibiting an increase in calls are located within industrial and recreational areas.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dolney2006,
      author = {Timothy J. Dolney and Scott C Sheridan},
      title = {The relationship between extreme heat and ambulance response calls for the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.},
      journal = {Environmental Research},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {101},
      number = {1},
      pages = {94--103},
      url = {http://www.bama.ua.edu/~jcsenkbeil/appclim/dolney%20and%20sheridan.pdf}
    }
    					
    Dominici2003 Dominici, F.; Sheppard, L. & Clyde, M. Health Effects of Air Pollution: A Statistical Review 2003 International Statistical Review
    Vol. 71 (2) , pp. 243-276  
    article 1a
    Abstract: We critically review and compare epidemiological designs and statistical approaches to estimate associations between air pollution and health. More specifically, we aim to address the following questions:
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dominici2003,
      author = {Dominici, Francesca and Sheppard, Lianne and Clyde, Merlise},
      title = {Health Effects of Air Pollution: A Statistical Review},
      journal = {International Statistical Review},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {71},
      number = {2},
      pages = {243--276},
      url = {http://www.biostat.jhsph.edu/~fdominic/papers/ISRpaper0920.pdf},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-5823.2003.tb00195.x}
    }
    					
    Duncan2009 Duncan, H. 'T. Pre-event Crowd Behaviour Prediction System: A Study within Concert Environment 2009 Journal of Crowd Safety and Security Management
    Vol. 1 (2) , pp. 33-43  
    article 2011.08.15
    Abstract: This paper investigates the relationship between artistes’ performance behaviour and set lists/song tempos, and their respective audience behaviour, using a pre-event, concert audience prediction system. The purpose of the study is to determine whether this prediction system can enhance crowd safety at concerts. A case study approach was adopted, and qualitative research was conducted by systematically observing audience behaviour. Sampling was purposive, and audiences at two concerts were conveniently chosen. Secondary statistics regarding audience demographics were also used to aid in the analysis. The findings suggest that the pre-event crowd prediction system is a useful tool that can aid crowd safety efforts at these events. They also point to the need for properly qualified safety management personnel to conduct such a prediction system. Further research is suggested into crowd behaviour within a concert environment incorporating data on queuing systems, crowd arrival/dispersal, event specific ingress and egress patterns, and artistes’ behaviour.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Duncan2009,
      author = {Hugh 'Tony' Duncan},
      title = {Pre-event Crowd Behaviour Prediction System: A Study within Concert Environment},
      journal = {Journal of Crowd Safety and Security Management},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {1},
      number = {2},
      pages = {33-43},
      url = {http://www.crowdsafetymanagement.co.uk/data/journals/4%20issue%202.pdf}
    }
    					
    Dvorak2010 Dvorak, J.; Grimm, K.; Constantinou, D.; Kramer, E. & Motaung, S. FIFA Football Emergency Medicine Manual 2010   manual 2013.02.07
    Review: premiers chapitres à lire en détail !
    BibTeX:
    @manual{Dvorak2010,
      author = {J. Dvorak and K. Grimm and D. Constantinou and E. Kramer and S. Motaung},
      title = {Football Emergency Medicine Manual},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://www.bcsoccer.net/Portals/0/Member/file_downloads/Documents/Coaches/Soccer%20Science/FIFA%20Emergency%20Manual.pdf}
    }
    					
    Earl2006 Earl, C. Public Health Management at Outdoor Music Festivals 2006 School: Queensland University of Technology   phdthesis 2011.06.23
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{Earl2006,
      author = {Cameron Earl},
      title = {Public Health Management at Outdoor Music Festivals},
      school = {Queensland University of Technology},
      year = {2006}
    }
    					
    Emslie2002 Emslie, S.; Knox, K. & Pickstone, M. Improving patient safety: insights from American, Australian and British healthcare 2002   techreport 2012.03.11
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Emslie2002,
      author = {Stuart Emslie and Kirstine Knox and Martin Pickstone},
      title = {Improving patient safety: insights from American, Australian and British healthcare},
      year = {2002},
      url = {http://www.who.int/patientsafety/journals_library/Improving_Patient_Safety.pdf}
    }
    					
    Enock2008 Enock, K.E. & Jacobs, J. The Olympic and Paralympic Games 2012: Literature review of the logistical planning and operational challenges for public health 2008 Public Health
    Vol. 122 , pp. 1229-1238  
    article 2013.01.05
    Abstract: Summary Objective: To undertake a review of the literature relating to public
    health planning and interventions at previous summer Olympic and Paralympic
    Games and other relevant major summer sporting events or mass gatherings, with
    a focus on official publications and peer-reviewed articles.
    Study design: Literature review.
    Methods: A literature review was undertaken using all biomedical databases and
    a freetext search usingGoogle to widen the search beyond peer-reviewed publications.
    Search terms usedwere: Olympics; Paralympics;mass gatherings;mass gatheringmedicine;
    sporting events; weather; planning; and organisation. Citations within articles
    were searched to identify additional references that would informthis review. This literature
    review concentrates on the public health aspects of population care at mass
    gatherings, particularly the Olympic and Paralympic Games which are set over several
    weeks, focusing on surveillance, prevention and health service quality.
    Results: The literature identified 10 areas of public health planning: public health
    command centre and communication; surveillance, assessment and control; environmental
    health and safety; infectious disease outbreaks; implications of weather conditions;
    health promotion; travel information; economic assessments; public transport
    and reduction of asthma events; and preparing athletes for potential allergies. The following
    themesemerged as crucial factors for the success of any public health interventions
    at Olympic and Paralympic Games: detailed planning of deliverables; preidentification
    of critical success factors; management of risk; detailed contingency
    planning; and full testing of all plans prior to the event.
    Conclusions: The 2012 Olympic Games will provide an exciting challenge for public
    health providers and systems. Preparation requires early detailed planning of
    policies, procedures and on-site health promotion events, in addition to helping to
    * Corresponding author. Tel.: þ44 7952 200157; fax: þ020 7594 0866.
    E-mail address: katieenock@aol.com (K.E. Enock).
    0033-3506/$ - see front matter ª 2008 The Royal Institute of Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    doi:10.1016/j.puhe.2008.04.016
    Public Health (2008) 122, 1229e1238
    www.elsevierhealth.com/journals/pubh
    set up the surveillance and monitoring systems that will capture public health activity
    alongside medical activity. Learning from the literature review will support the identification
    of critical success factors and help to formulate recommendations that will allow
    optimal utilization of public health initiatives. All plans require full costings in
    advance which are supported by internal and external health-related agencies, voluntary
    organizations and sponsors. A risk assessment should be undertaken as part of the
    planning process leading to risk management plans for mitigating identified potential
    risks. All surveillance andmonitoring systems, communication, policies and procedures
    will require full testing prior to commencement of the Games.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Enock2008,
      author = {K. E. Enock and J. Jacobs},
      title = {The Olympic and Paralympic Games 2012: Literature review of the logistical planning and operational challenges for public health},
      journal = {Public Health},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {122},
      pages = {1229-1238},
      url = {http://www.publichealthjrnl.com/article/S0033-3506%2808%2900122-4/abstract}
    }
    					
    Erickson1996 Erickson, T.B.; Aks, S.E.; Koenigsberg, M.; Bunney, E.B.; Schurgin, B. & Levy, P. Drug use patterns at major rock concert events 1996 Ann Emerg Med
    Vol. 28 , pp. 22-26  
    article 2012.04.04
    Abstract: STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe alcohol and drug use patterns in patients presenting to first aid stations at major rock concerts.

    METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all charts generated at the first aid stations of five major rock concerts featuring the rock groups Pink Floyd, the Grateful Dead, and the Rolling Stones. The first aid stations, located at a sports stadium, were staffed by paramedics, emergency medicine nurses, and physicians. We recorded the following data: patient demographics, history of drug or ethanol use, time spent by patient in first aid station, treatment rendered, diagnosis, and patient disposition.

    RESULTS: A total of 253, 286 spectators attended the five concert events. The rate of use of the first aid station was 1.2 per 1,000 patrons. The average age of the patrons was 26.3 +/- 7.9 years (range, 3 to 56 years). The most common diagnoses were minor trauma 130 (42%) and ethanol or illicit drug intoxication 98 (32%). Of the patients treated, 147 (48%) admitted to using illicit drugs or ethanol while attending the concerts. The median time spent in the first aid station was 15 +/- 22.5 minutes (range, 5 to 150 minutes). One hundred patients (32.5%) were treated and released, 98 (32%) were transported to emergency departments, and 110 (35.5%) signed out against medical advice.

    CONCLUSION: Minor trauma and the use of illicit drugs and ethanol were common in spectators presenting to first aid stations at these concert events. Physicians and paramedical personnel working at rock concerts should be aware of the current drug use patterns and should be trained in treating such drug use.

    BibTeX:
    @article{Erickson1996,
      author = {T. B. Erickson and S. E. Aks and M. Koenigsberg and E. B. Bunney and B. Schurgin and P. Levy},
      title = {Drug use patterns at major rock concert events},
      journal = {Ann Emerg Med},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {28},
      pages = {22-26},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0196064496701336}
    }
    					
    Federman1997 Federman, J. & Giordano, L. How to cope with a visit from the Pope 1997 Prehosp Disaster Med
    Vol. 12 , pp. 86-91  
    article 2011.09.21
    BibTeX:
    @article{Federman1997,
      author = {J.H. Federman and L.M. Giordano},
      title = {How to cope with a visit from the Pope},
      journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {12},
      pages = {86-91}
    }
    					
    Feldman2005 Feldman, M.J.; Lukins, J.L.; Verbeek, P.; Burgess, R.J. & Schwartz, B. Use of treat-and-release medical directives for paramedics at a mass gathering 2005 Prehosp Emerg Care
    Vol. 9 (2) , pp. 213-217  
    article 2012.03.21
    BibTeX:
    @article{Feldman2005,
      author = {M. J. Feldman and J. L. Lukins and P.R. Verbeek and R. J. Burgess and B. Schwartz},
      title = {Use of treat-and-release medical directives for paramedics at a mass gathering},
      journal = {Prehosp Emerg Care},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {9},
      number = {2},
      pages = {213-217},
      url = {http://www.socpc.ca/pdf/research/Use%20of%20treat%20and%20release%20medical%20directives%20for%20paramedics%20at%20a%20mass%20gathering.pdf}
    }
    					
    Fontanetta2011 Fontanetta, J. Extending the Emergency Department to the Arena 2011 Healthcare Informatics
    Vol. 28 (4) , pp. 21-22  
    article 2011.12.28
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fontanetta2011,
      author = {John Fontanetta},
      title = {Extending the Emergency Department to the Arena},
      journal = {Healthcare Informatics},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {28},
      number = {4},
      pages = {21-22},
      url = {http://www.healthcare-informatics.com/me2/dirmod.asp?sid=9B6FFC446FF7486981EA3C0C3CCE4943&nm=Articles%2FNews&type=Publishing&mod=Publications%3A%3AArticle&mid=8F3A7027421841978F18BE895F87F791&tier=4&id=79BE8C89BD5E4F429A057214EDBBFE3E}
    }
    					
    Forrest1999 Forrest, R.D. [Report from the medical tent at three rock festivals. Lots of music, great fun and very little drunkeness] 1999 Läkartidningen
    Vol. 96 (23) , pp. 2874-2876  
    article 2011_a
    Abstract: Rock festivals are popular summer attractions in Scandinavia, and each of the largest festivals has its own voluntary medical crew of doctors, nurses and nursing auxiliaries. The medical crew is an important part of the festival safety facilities, providing free acute health care to festival visitors, and thus relieving pressure on local primary health centres and hospitals. In 1998, 797 of the 25,000 visitors to the three-day Hultsfred Festival were treated at the medical tent, 465 of them by a doctor; and 305 of the 17,000 people attending the two-day Fanclub88 event were treated at the medical tent, 132 by a doctor. No figures are available for the 1998 Roskilde Festival in Denmark, but at the 1997 festival, 3,369 of the 95,000 visitors were treated at the medical tent.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Forrest1999,
      author = {Forrest, R D},
      title = {[Report from the medical tent at three rock festivals. Lots of music, great fun and very little drunkeness]},
      journal = {Läkartidningen},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {96},
      number = {23},
      pages = {2874--2876},
      note = {PMID: 10405537},
      url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10405537}
    }
    					
    Fridman2011 Fridman, N.; Zilberstein, T. & Kaminka, G.A. Salerno, J.; Yang, S.J.; Nau, D. & Chai, S.-K. (Hrsg.) Predicting Demonstrations’ Violence Level Using Qualitative Reasoning 2011
    Vol. 6589 Social Computing, Behavioral-Cultural Modeling and Prediction , pp. 42-50  
    incollection 1a
    Abstract: In this paper we describe a method for modeling social behavior of
    large groups, and apply it to the problem of predicting potential violence during
    demonstrations. We use qualitative reasoning techniques which to our knowledge
    have never been applied to modeling crowd behaviors, nor in particular to demonstrations.
    Such modeling may not only contribute to the police decision making
    process, but can also provide a great opportunity to test existing theories in social
    science. We incrementally present and compare three qualitative models, based
    on social science theories. The results show that while two of these models fail
    to predict the outcomes of real-world events reported and analyzed in the literature,
    one model is successful. We believe that this demonstrates the efficacy of
    qualitative reasoning in the development and testing of social sciences theories.
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{Fridman2011,
      author = {Fridman, Natalie and Zilberstein, Tomer and Kaminka, Gal A.},
      title = {Predicting Demonstrations’ Violence Level Using Qualitative Reasoning},
      booktitle = {Social Computing, Behavioral-Cultural Modeling and Prediction},
      publisher = {Springer Berlin Heidelberg},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {6589},
      pages = {42--50},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/q933112125l8178t/}
    }
    					
    Friede2009 Friede, K.A.; Osborne, M.C.; Erickson, D.J.; Roesler, J.S.; Azam, A.; Croston, J.K.; McGonigal, M.D. & Ney, A.L. Predicting Trauma Admissions : The Effect of Weather, Weekday, and Other Variables 2009 Minnesota Medicine   article 2010.09.29
    BibTeX:
    @article{Friede2009,
      author = {Kevin A. Friede and Marc C. Osborne and Darin J. Erickson and Jon S. Roesler and Arsalan Azam and J. Kevin Croston and Michael D. McGonigal and Arthur L. Ney},
      title = {Predicting Trauma Admissions : The Effect of Weather, Weekday, and Other Variables},
      journal = {Minnesota Medicine},
      year = {2009},
      url = {http://www.minnesotamedicine.com/CurrentIssue/ClinicalPredictingTraumaAdmissions/tabid/3244/Default.aspx}
    }
    					
    Gevrey2012 Gevrey, M. Seulement 13 accidents CV pour 512 000 coureurs de longue distance dans RACE 2012 theheart.org website : theheart.org  electronic 2012.05.15
    BibTeX:
    @electronic{Gevrey2012,
      author = {Muriel Gevrey},
      title = {Seulement 13 accidents CV pour 512 000 coureurs de longue distance dans RACE},
      journal = {theheart.org},
      year = {2012},
      url = {http://www.theheart.org/fr/article/1371795.do}
    }
    					
    Grange2003 Grange, J.T.; Baumann, G.W. & Vaezazizi, R. On-site physicians reduce ambulance transports at mass gatherings. 2003 Prehosp Emerg Care
    Vol. 7 , pp. 322-326  
    article 2013.02.11
    Abstract: To prospectively determine if on-site physicians at a mass gathering reduced the number of ambulance transports to local medical facilities. The authors also wished to determine the level of care provider (emergency medical technician, EMT-P, registered nurse, or medical doctor) required to treat and disposition each patient.
    METHODS:

    This study determined whether each patient presenting to on-site first aid stations at California Speedway during a large motorsports event would require ambulance transport to the hospital per the local emergency medical services (EMS) protocols. Whether the on-site physician prevented certain ambulance transports also was determined. Additionally, the minimum level of provider that could treat and disposition each patient was determined.
    RESULTS:

    On-site physicians significantly reduced (p < 0.001) the number of ambulance transports at this mass gathering. Ambulance transports to local hospitals were reduced by 89% (from 116 to 13). Fifty-two percent of the patients were able to be treated and dispositioned (cardiac arrests, minor first aid, etc.) by a paramedic. Registered nurses were able to treat and disposition another 39% of the patients with pre-established protocols written by the track medical director. These patients had abrasions requiring tetanus shots, mild to moderate heat exhaustion that resolved with intravenous hydration, and other minor complaints. Finally, about 9% of the patients required physician-level care (suturing, prescriptions, etc.) to treat and disposition them.
    CONCLUSION:

    On-site physician-level medical care at large mass gatherings significantly reduces the number of patients requiring transport to hospitals, thus reducing the impact on the local EMS system and surrounding medical facilities.

    BibTeX:
    @article{Grange2003,
      author = {J. T. Grange and G. W. Baumann and R. Vaezazizi},
      title = {On-site physicians reduce ambulance transports at mass gatherings.},
      journal = {Prehosp Emerg Care},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {7},
      pages = {322-326},
      url = {http://www.symonseventsafety.com/cmsdocuments/Physicans_Reduce_Ambulance_Transports_at_Mass_Gatherings.pdf}
    }
    					
    Grange1999 Grange, J.T.; Green, S.M. & Downs, W. Concert Medicine: Spectrum of Medical Problems Encountered at 405 Major Concerts 1999 Academic Emergency Medicine
    Vol. 6 , pp. 202-207  
    article 2011.06.23
    BibTeX:
    @article{Grange1999,
      author = {Jeff T. Grange and Steven M. Green and Warren Downs},
      title = {Concert Medicine: Spectrum of Medical Problems Encountered at 405 Major Concerts},
      journal = {Academic Emergency Medicine},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {6},
      pages = {202-207},
      url = {http://www.symonseventsafety.com/cmsdocuments/Concert_Medicine_article_for_website.pdf}
    }
    					
    Grant2010 Grant, W.D.; Nacca, N.E.; Prince, L.A. & Scott, J.M. Mass-gathering medical care: retrospective analysis of patient presentations over five years at a multi-day mass gathering 2010 Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
    Vol. 25 (2) , pp. 183-187  
    article 1a
    Abstract: INTRODUCTION: There is a scarcity of analytical data regarding mass-gathering medical care. The purpose of this study was to identify and evaluate the range and nature of illness and injury for patrons of an annual, multi-day, mass gathering. METHODS: Encounter data from all patients seen by emergency physicians at the New York State Fair Infirmary during the past five years were analyzed. From these data, a category list was consolidated to 36 reasons for the visit based on chief complaint, nursing notes, and physician notes. The most common reasons for being seen by a physician were analyzed to determine age and gender discrepancies. RESULTS: The average number of attendees at the Fair per year from 2004-2008 was 950,973. Emergency physicians evaluated a total of 2,075 patients from 2004-2008. The average patient presentation rate over the past four years (2005-2008) was 4.8 +/-1.1/10,000 patrons. The average transport to hospital rate over the past four years was 2.7 +/-1.1/100,000 patrons. The average age of all patients seen was 34.4 +/-21.6 years, and 58.1% of the patients were female. The most common reasons to seek medical attention included: dehydration/heat-related illness (11.4; abrasion/laceration (10.6; and fall-related injury (10.2. Two groups, dehydration/heat-related illness 74% (t (4) = 2.90, p textless0.05), and fall-related injury (68 t (4) = 5.17, p textless0.05) were disproportionately female. There also was a direct relationship between age and female gender within the fall-related injury category (X(2) (1, n = 213) = 11.41, p textless0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Patron data from fairs and expositions is a valuable resource for studying mass-gathering medical care. A majority (58 of patients seen at the infirmary were female. The most common reason for being seen was dehydration/heat-related illness, which heavily favored females, but favored no age groups. The abrasion/laceration category did not contribute to the gender discrepancy. Patients who fell tended to be females textgreater40 years of age. Further analysis is required to determine the reason for the gender discrepancies. Planners of multi-day mass gatherings should develop public education programs and evaluate their impact on the at-risk populations identified by this analysis.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Grant2010,
      author = {William D Grant and Nicholas E Nacca and Louise A Prince and Jay M Scott},
      title = {Mass-gathering medical care: retrospective analysis of patient presentations over five years at a multi-day mass gathering},
      journal = {Prehospital and Disaster Medicine},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {25},
      number = {2},
      pages = {183--187},
      note = {PMID: 20468001},
      url = {http://pdm.medicine.wisc.edu/Volume_25/issue_2/grant.pdf}
    }
    					
    Greenock2006 Greenock, J.-P. A study into the Management Strategies currently employed to maximise crowd safety within the United Kingdom Live Music industry 2006 School: Buckinghamshire Chiltrens University College   mastersthesis 2011.08.15
    BibTeX:
    @mastersthesis{Greenock2006,
      author = {John-Paul Greenock},
      title = {A study into the Management Strategies currently employed to maximise crowd safety within the United Kingdom Live Music industry},
      school = {Buckinghamshire Chiltrens University College},
      year = {2006},
      url = {http://www.stagesafe.co.uk/user_files/crowd-safety.pdf}
    }
    					
    HEYSEL_FAITSDIVERS Grombeer, J.-P.; Michaux, L. & Lorentini, O. Le drame du Heysel 1995   electronic 2012.03.23
    Abstract: 29 mai 1985, stade du Heysel à Bruxelles. Les Anglais de Liverpool s’apprêtent à rencontrer les Italiens de la Juventus de Turin en finale de la Coupe d’Europe des clubs champions. Des dizaines de milliers de supporters sont présents dans les gradins. Des centaines de millions d’autres sont devant leur poste de télévision. Une belle soirée de foot en perspective. Mais au lieu de cela c’est l’horreur. Des supporters anglais envahissent le bloc Z, une tribune réservée aux Italiens. Le drame commence. Il fera 39 morts et des centaines de blessés.
    Dix ans plus tard, Othello Lorentini, un des rescapés du bloc Z, raconte comment sa vie a basculé ce soir-là.
    BibTeX:
    @electronic{HEYSEL_FAITSDIVERS,
      author = {Jean-Pierre Grombeer and Léon Michaux and Othello Lorentini},
      title = {Le drame du Heysel},
      year = {1995},
      note = {Émission Faits divers},
      url = {http://blog.sonuma.be/le-drame-du-heysel/}
    }
    					
    Gutman2011 Gutman, S.J.; Lund, A. & Turris, S.A. Medical Support for the 2009 World Police and Fire Games: A Descriptive Analysis of a Large-Scale Participation Event and Its Impact 2011 Prehosp Disaster Med
    Vol. 26 (01) , pp. 33-40  
    article 1a
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gutman2011,
      author = {Gutman, Samuel J. and Lund, Adam and Turris, Sheila A.},
      title = {Medical Support for the 2009 World Police and Fire Games: A Descriptive Analysis of a Large-Scale Participation Event and Its Impact},
      journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {26},
      number = {01},
      pages = {33--40},
      url = {http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8235578&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S1049023X10000117},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1049023X10000117}
    }
    					
    Haenen0000 Haenen, W. Medische aspecten van risicomanifestaties en de overheid - Ontwikkelen van een wetenschappelije basis voor een rekenmodel ter evaluatie van de medische workload van risicomanifestaties en de (onmiddelijke) effecten ervan op de volksgezondheid School: PIBA   mastersthesis 2012.03.03
    BibTeX:
    @mastersthesis{Haenen0000,
      author = {Wim Haenen},
      title = {Medische aspecten van risicomanifestaties en de overheid -- Ontwikkelen van een wetenschappelije basis voor een rekenmodel ter evaluatie van de medische workload van risicomanifestaties en de (onmiddelijke) effecten ervan op de volksgezondheid},
      school = {PIBA},
      url = {www.piba.be/viewDownload.aspx?Docid=312}
    }
    					
    Hager2004 Hager, M.A. & Brudney, J.L. The Urban Institute Volunteer Management Practices and Retention of Volunteers   manual 2013.01.05
    BibTeX:
    @manual{Hager2004,
      author = {Mark A. Hager and Jeffrey L. Brudney},
      title = {Volunteer Management Practices and Retention of Volunteers},
      url = {http://www.urban.org/uploadedPDF/411005_VolunteerManagement.pdf}
    }
    					
    Hardcastle2010 Hardcastle The Moses Mabhida Medical Plan: medical care planning and execution at a FIFA2010 stadium; the Durban experience 2010 Open Access Emergency Medicine
    Vol. 2 , pp. 91-97  
    article 2013.02.11
    Abstract: Aim: This paper aims to outline the medical services provided at the Moses Mabhida Stadium,
    Durban, South Africa for the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) 2010
    Soccer World Cup and audit the clinical services delivered to persons seeking medical
    assistance.
    Methods: Descriptive report of the medical facilities at the Moses Mabhida Stadium including
    the staff deployment. Retrospective data review of medical incident reports from the Stadium
    Medical Team.
    Results: Medical staffing exceeded the local norms and was satisfactory to provide rapid intervention
    for all incoming patients. Senior medical presence decreased the transport to hospital
    rate (TTHR). A total of 316 spectators or support staff were treated during the seven matches
    played at the stadium. The majority of patients were male (60%), mostly of local origin, with
    mostly minor complaints that were treated and discharged (88.2% Green codes). The most
    common complaints were headache, abdominal disorders, and soft-tissue injuries. One fatality
    was recorded. The patient presentation rate (PPR) was 0.66/10,000 and the TTHR was overall
    4.1% of all treated patients (0.027/10,000 spectators).
    Conclusion: There was little evidence to guide medical planning for staffing from the FIFA
    governing body. Most patients are treated and released in accordance with international literature,
    leading to low TTHR rates, while PPR was in line with international experience. Headache
    was the most common medical complaint. The blowing of Vuvuzelas® may have influenced
    the high headache rate
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hardcastle2010,
      author = {Hardcastle},
      title = {The Moses Mabhida Medical Plan: medical care planning and execution at a FIFA2010 stadium; the Durban experience},
      journal = {Open Access Emergency Medicine},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {2},
      pages = {91-97},
      url = {http://www.dovepress.com/the-moses-mabhida-medical-plan-medical-care-planning-and-execution-at--peer-reviewed-article-OAEM}
    }
    					
    Hartman2009 Hartman, N.; Williamson, A.; Sojka, B.; Alibertis, K.; Sidebottom, M.; Berry, T.; Hamm, J.; O'Connor, R.E. & Brady, W.J. Predicting resource use at mass gatherings using a simplified stratification scoring model 2009 The American Journal of Emergency Medicine
    Vol. 27 (3) , pp. 337-343  
    article 1a
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hartman2009,
      author = {Nicholas Hartman and Allen Williamson and Benjamin Sojka and Kostas Alibertis and Marjorie Sidebottom and Thomas Berry and Jay Hamm and Robert E. O'Connor and William J. Brady},
      title = {Predicting resource use at mass gatherings using a simplified stratification scoring model},
      journal = {The American Journal of Emergency Medicine},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {27},
      number = {3},
      pages = {337--343},
      url = {http://www.ajemjournal.com/article/S0735-6757(08)00275-1/abstract},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2008.03.042}
    }
    					
    Hawkins2010 Hawkins, E.R. & Brice, J.H. Fire Jumpers: Description of Burns and Traumatic Injuries from a Spontaneous Mass Gathering and Celebratory Riot 2010 The Journal of emergency medicine
    Vol. 38 (2) , pp. 182-187  
    article 2011.09.04
    Abstract: Background: On April 3 and 5 of 2005, approximately 52,000 people gathered in Chapel Hill, North Carolina to celebrate the National Collegiate Athletic Association Final Four victories of the University of North Carolina men's basketball team. As crowds rejoiced and intensified into a celebratory riot, many participants lit dozens of bonfires and expressed themselves by jumping through the flames. Objective: To describe the interesting injury mechanism of celebratory fire jumping and to describe the injuries associated with two celebratory riots. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study analyzing all Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and hospital reports of injuries associated with each gathering. We used a standardized data collection instrument to record descriptive information on all patients with celebration-associated complaints and noted their treatment and disposition. For analysis, we abstracted data and generated basic descriptive statistics and comparisons of groups. Results: A total of 58 celebrants received medical care, including 27 patients first evaluated by EMS and 49 patients subsequently evaluated in the Emergency Department. Most were young (average age = 23.8 years), male (65%, 32/49), had complaints associated with alcohol (65%, 32/49), and were not admitted to the hospital (92%, 45/49). Of those presenting for hospital evaluation, 30% (15/49) had burns associated with fire-jumping. Conclusions: Most patients from these gatherings had relatively minor injuries or medical complaints. However, burns associated with fire-jumping represented a substantial proportion of more serious injuries and hospitalizations. These cases are presented to increase awareness of the burn injuries associated with this type of celebratory mass gathering.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hawkins2010,
      author = {Eric R. Hawkins and Jane H. Brice},
      title = {Fire Jumpers: Description of Burns and Traumatic Injuries from a Spontaneous Mass Gathering and Celebratory Riot},
      journal = {The Journal of emergency medicine},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {38},
      number = {2},
      pages = {182-187},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2008.08.028}
    }
    					
    Heide2006 der Heide, E.A. The Importance of Evidence-Based Disaster Planning 2006 Ann Emerg Med
    Vol. 47 (1) , pp. 34-49  
    article 1a
    Abstract: Disaster planning is only as good as the assumptions on which it is based. However, some of these
    assumptions are derived from a conventional wisdom that is at variance with empirical field disaster
    research studies. Knowledge of disaster research findings might help planners avoid common disaster
    management pitfalls, thereby improving disaster response planning. To illustrate the point, this article
    examines several common assumptions about disasters, compares them with research findings, and
    discusses the implications for planning. These assumptions are that:
    1. Dispatchers will hear of the disaster and send emergency response units to the scene.
    2. Trained emergency personnel will carry out field search and rescue.
    3. Trained emergency medical services personnel will carry out triage, provide first aid or stabilizing
    medical care, anddif necessaryddecontaminate casualties before patient transport.
    4. Casualties will be transported to hospitals by ambulance.
    5. Casualties will be transported to hospitals appropriate for their needs and in such a manner that no
    hospitals receive a disproportionate number.
    6. Authorities at the scene will ensure that area hospitals are promptly notified of the disaster and the
    numbers, types, and severities of casualties to be transported to them.
    7. The most serious casualties will be the first to be transported to hospitals.
    The current status and limitations of disaster research are discussed, and potential interventions to
    response problems are offered that may be of help to planners and practitioners and that may serve as
    hypotheses for future research. [Ann Emerg Med. 2006;47:34-49.]
    BibTeX:
    @article{Heide2006,
      author = {Erik Auf der Heide},
      title = {The Importance of Evidence-Based Disaster Planning},
      journal = {Ann Emerg Med},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {47},
      number = {1},
      pages = {34--49},
      url = {http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/emergency_response/importance_disaster_planning.pdf},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2005.05.009}
    }
    					
    Helbing2012 Helbing, D. & Mukerji, P. Crowd Disasters as Systemic Failures: Analysis of the Love Parade Disaster 2012 EPJ Data Science
    Vol. 1 (7) , pp. 1-40  
    article 2013.08.12
    BibTeX:
    @article{Helbing2012,
      author = {Dirk Helbing and Pratik Mukerji},
      title = {Crowd Disasters as Systemic Failures: Analysis of the Love Parade Disaster},
      journal = {EPJ Data Science},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {1},
      number = {7},
      pages = {1-40},
      url = {http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1140%2Fepjds7.pdf}
    }
    					
    Henry2009 Henry, B. Public Health and Mass Gatherings: What Emergency Managers need to know 2009   electronic 2013.01.05
    BibTeX:
    @electronic{Henry2009,
      author = {Bonnie Henry},
      title = {Public Health and Mass Gatherings: What Emergency Managers need to know},
      year = {2009},
      url = {http://host.jibc.ca/epconference/2009_conference/presos/Plenary_3_Mass_Gathering_2009.pdf}
    }
    					
    Herring2004 Herring, S.A.; Bergfeld, J.A.; Boyajian-O’Neill, L.A.; Indelicato, P.; Jaffe, R.; Kibler, W.B.; O’Connor, F.G.; Pallay, R.; Roberts, W.O.; Stockard, A.; Taft, T.N.; Williams, J. & Young, C.C. Mass Participation Event Management for the Team Physician: A Consensus Statement 2004 Medicine & Science In Sports & Exercise
    Vol. 36 (11)  
    article 2012.03.15
    Abstract: This document provides an overview of select medical issues that are important to team physicians who are
    responsible for mass participation event management. It is not intended as a standard of care, and should not be
    interpreted as such. This document is only a guide, and as such, is of a general nature, consistent with the
    reasonable, objective practice of the healthcare professional. Individual treatment will turn on the specific facts and
    circumstances presented to the physician. Adequate insurance should be in place to help protect the physician, the
    athlete, and the sponsoring organization.
    This statement was developed by a collaboration of six major professional associations concerned about clinical
    sports medicine issues; they have committed to forming an ongoing project-based alliance to bring together sports
    medicine organizations to best serve active people and athletes. The organizations are: American Academy of
    Family Physicians, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, American College of Sports Medicine, American
    Medical Society for Sports Medicine, American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, and the American
    Osteopathic Academy of Sports Medicine.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Herring2004,
      author = {Stanley A. Herring and John A. Bergfeld and Lori A. Boyajian-O’Neill and Peter Indelicato and Rebecca Jaffe and W. Ben Kibler and Francis G. O’Connor and Robert Pallay and William O. Roberts and Alan Stockard and Timothy N. Taft and James Williams and Craig C. Young},
      title = {Mass Participation Event Management for the Team Physician: A Consensus Statement},
      journal = {Medicine & Science In Sports & Exercise},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {36},
      number = {11},
      url = {http://www.aafp.org/online/en/home/clinical/publichealth/sportsmed/team-physician-consensus-statements.html#Parsys18022.8}
    }
    					
    Hewitt1996 Hewitt, S.; Jarrett, L. & Winter, B. Emergency medicine at a large rock festival 1996 J Accid Emerg Med
    Vol. 13 , pp. 6-27  
    article 2012.05.12
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hewitt1996,
      author = {Susanne Hewitt and Lyn Jarrett and Bob Winter},
      title = {Emergency medicine at a large rock festival},
      journal = {J Accid Emerg Med},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {13},
      pages = {6-27}
    }
    					
    Hodgetts1999 Hodgetts, T.J. & Cooke, M.W. The largest mass gathering 1999 British Medical Journal
    Vol. 318 (7189) , pp. 957 -958  
    article 1a
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hodgetts1999,
      author = {Hodgetts, T J and Cooke, M W},
      title = {The largest mass gathering},
      journal = {British Medical Journal},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {318},
      number = {7189},
      pages = {957 --958},
      url = {http://www.bmj.com/content/318/7189/957.full}
    }
    					
    Huchet2012 Huchet, F. Demande de soins lors d’un grand rassemblement, étude descriptive du premier festival de musique francais 2012 School: Université De Brest – Bretagne Occidentale   mastersthesis 2013.01.05
    BibTeX:
    @mastersthesis{Huchet2012,
      author = {François Huchet},
      title = {Demande de soins lors d’un grand rassemblement, étude descriptive du premier festival de musique francais},
      school = {Université De Brest – Bretagne Occidentale},
      year = {2012},
      url = {http://dumas.ccsd.cnrs.fr/dumas-00717248}
    }
    					
    Hutton2010 Hutton, A.; Munt, R.; Zeitz, K.; Cusack, L.; Kako, M. & Arbon, P. Piloting a mass gathering conceptual framework at an Adelaide Schoolies Festival 2010 Collegian
    Vol. 17 , pp. 183-191  
    article 2011.11.13
    Abstract: Summary During the summer months in Australia, school leavers celebrate their end of school
    life at schoolies festivals around the nation. These events are typically described as a mass
    gathering as they are an organised event taking place within a defined space, attended by a
    large number of people. A project was undertaken to analyse the usefulness of Arbon’s (2004)
    conceptual model of mass gatherings in order to develop a process to better understand the
    Adelaide Schoolies Festival.

    Method: Arbon’s conceptual framework describes the inter-relationship between the psychosocial,
    environmental and bio-medical domains of a mass gathering. Each domain has set
    characteristics which help to understand the impact on the mass gathering event. The characteristics
    within three domains were collected using field work and bio-medical data to examine
    the relationship between injury and illness rates.

    Results: Using the conceptual framework to evaluate this schoolies event helped create an
    understanding of the physiology, environment and behaviour contributing to patient presentations.
    Results showed that the schoolies crowd was active and energetic, and the main crowd
    behaviour observed was dancing and socialising with friends. The environmental domain was
    characterised by a grassy outdoor venue that was bounded and dry. Due to the overall health
    of the crowd, activities undertaken and the supportive environment, the majority of injuries
    to schoolies were minor (68%). However, twenty-four percent of schoolies who presented with
    alcohol related illness were found to have consumed alcohol at risky levels; half of this cohort
    was transported to hospital.

    BibTeX:
    @article{Hutton2010,
      author = {Alison Hutton and Rebecca Munt and Kathryn Zeitz and Lynette Cusack and Mayumi Kako and Paul Arbon},
      title = {Piloting a mass gathering conceptual framework at an Adelaide Schoolies Festival},
      journal = {Collegian},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {17},
      pages = {183-191},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colegn.2010.09.005}
    }
    					
    Hutton2012 Hutton, A.; Zeitz, K.; Brown, S. & Arbon, P. Assessing the Psychosocial Elements of Crowds at Mass Gatherings 2012 Prehosp Disaster Med
    Vol. 26 , pp. 414-421  
    article 2012.05.08
    Abstract: Introduction: The environmental aspects of mass gatherings that can affect the health and safety of the crowd have been well described. Although it has been recognized that the nature of the crowd will directly impact the health and safety of the crowd, the majority of research focuses on crowd behavior in a negative context such as violence or conflict. Within the mass gathering literature, there is no agreement on what crowd behavior, crowd mood and crowd type actually mean. At the same time, these elements have a number of applications, including event management and mass gathering medicine. These questions are worthy of exploration.
    Methods: This paper will report on a pilot project undertaken to evaluate how effective current crowd assessment tools are in understanding the psychosocial domain of a mass gathering event.
    Results: The pilot project highlighted the need for a more consistent descriptive data set that focuses on crowd behavior.
    Conclusions: The descriptive data collected in this study provide a beginning insight into the science of understanding crowds at a mass gathering event. This pilot has commenced a process of quantifying the psychosocial nature of an event. To maximize the value of this work, future research is required to understand the interplay among the three domains of mass gatherings (physical, environmental and psychological), along with the effects of each element within the domains on safety and health outcomes for participants at mass gatherings.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hutton2012,
      author = {Alison Hutton and Kathryn Zeitz and Steve Brown and Paul Arbon},
      title = {Assessing the Psychosocial Elements of Crowds at Mass Gatherings},
      journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {26},
      pages = {414-421}
    }
    					
    Ishola2011 Ishola, D.A. & Phin, N. Could influenza transmission be reduced by restricting mass gatherings? Towards an evidence-based policy framework 2011 Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
    Vol. 1 , pp. 33-60  
    article 2013.01.05
    Abstract: Introduction

    Mass gatherings (MG) may provide ideal conditions for influenza transmission. The evidence for an association between MG and influenza transmission is reviewed to assess whether restricting MG may reduce transmission.
    Methods

    Major databases were searched (Pubmed, EMBASE, Scopus, CINAHL), producing 1706 articles that were sifted by title, abstract, and full-text. A narrative approach was adopted for data synthesis.
    Results

    Twenty-four papers met the inclusion criteria, covering MG of varying sizes and settings, and including 9 observational studies, 10 outbreak reports, 4 event reports, and a quasi-experimental study. There is some evidence that certain types of MG may be associated with increased risk of influenza transmission. MG may also “seed” new strains into an area, and may instigate community transmission in a pandemic. Restricting MGs, in combination with other social distancing interventions, may help reduce transmission, but it was not possible to identify conclusive evidence on the individual effect of MG restriction alone. Evidence suggests that event duration and crowdedness may be the key factors that determine the risk of influenza transmission, and possibly the type of venue (indoor/outdoor).
    Conclusion

    These factors potentially represent a basis for a policy-making framework for MG restrictions in the event of a severe pandemic.

    BibTeX:
    @article{Ishola2011,
      author = {David A. Ishola and Nick Phin},
      title = {Could influenza transmission be reduced by restricting mass gatherings? Towards an evidence-based policy framework},
      journal = {Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {1},
      pages = {33-60},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2210600611000062}
    }
    					
    Janchar1999 Janchar, T.; Samaddar, R. & Milzman, D. The Impact of "Mosh Pits" on Medical Incidents at Mass Gatherings 1999 Ann Emerg Med
    Vol. 34 (4) Annals of Emergency Medicine , pp. S66-S67  
    article 2011.08.08
    Review: Près de huit fois plus de victimes par 10000 participants en présence de "mosh-pits", une forme violente de danse.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Janchar1999,
      author = {T. Janchar and R. Samaddar and D. Milzman},
      title = {The Impact of "Mosh Pits" on Medical Incidents at Mass Gatherings},
      booktitle = {Annals of Emergency Medicine},
      journal = {Ann Emerg Med},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {34},
      number = {4},
      pages = {S66-S67},
      url = {http://www.annemergmed.com/article/S0196-0644(99)80340-0/abstract}
    }
    					
    Jaslow2006 Jaslow, D. EMS World Best Practices: Mass Gathering Events 2006   electronic 2013.01.25
    BibTeX:
    @electronic{Jaslow2006,
      author = {David Jaslow},
      title = {Best Practices: Mass Gathering Events},
      year = {2006},
      url = {http://www.emsworld.com/article/10322677/best-practices-mass-gathering-events?print=true}
    }
    					
    Jaslow2000 Jaslow, D. Mass gathering medical care 2000 National Association of EMS Physicians annual meeting   inproceedings 2012.03.12
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Jaslow2000,
      author = {David Jaslow},
      title = {Mass gathering medical care},
      booktitle = {National Association of EMS Physicians annual meeting},
      year = {2000}
    }
    					
    Johansson2012 Johansson, A.; Batty, M.; Hayashi, K.; Bar, O.A.; Marcozzi, D. & Memish, Z.A. Crowd and environmental management during mass gatherings 2012 Lancet Infect Dis
    Vol. 12 , pp. 150-156  
    article 2012.06.18
    BibTeX:
    @article{Johansson2012,
      author = {Anders Johansson and Michael Batty and Konrad Hayashi and Osama Al Bar and David Marcozzi and Ziad A Memish},
      title = {Crowd and environmental management during mass gatherings},
      journal = {Lancet Infect Dis},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {12},
      pages = {150-156},
      url = {http://press.thelancet.com/mg4.pdf}
    }
    					
    Keane2000 Keane, J.W.G.; Fisher, N. & Leditschke, J. Cardiac arrest outcomes at the Melbourne Cricket Ground and Shrine of Remembrance using a tiered response strategy-a forerunner to public access defibrillation 2000 Resuscitation
    Vol. 44 , pp. 97-104  
    article 2013.02.17
    BibTeX:
    @article{Keane2000,
      author = {J. Wassertheil G. Keane and N. Fisher and J.F. Leditschke},
      title = {Cardiac arrest outcomes at the Melbourne Cricket Ground and Shrine of Remembrance using a tiered response strategy-a forerunner to public access defibrillation},
      journal = {Resuscitation},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {44},
      pages = {97-104},
      url = {http://www.resuscitationjournal.com/article/S0300-9572%2899%2900168-9/abstract}
    }
    					
    Kelly2010 Kelly, J. & Gittell, M. EMS at Woodstock 2010 JEMS   article 2011.06.23
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kelly2010,
      author = {Jack Kelly and Myron Gittell},
      title = {EMS at Woodstock},
      journal = {JEMS},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://www.jems.com/article/major-incidents/ems-woodstock}
    }
    					
    Khorram-Manesh2010 Khorram-Manesh, A.; Berner, A.; Hedelin, A. & Ortenwall, P. Estimation of healthcare resources at sporting events 2010 Prehosp Disaster Med
    Vol. 25 (5) , pp. 449-455  
    article 1a
    Abstract: BACKGROUND The consequences of a major incident at a sporting event could be catastrophic. Therefore, there should be an estimation of the healthcare resources at such events as part of the planning. Although there are National guidelines (e.g., Planning Safe Public Events: Practical Guidelines in Australia) defining the role of the healthcare system at sporting events, these guidelines either lack a simple calculating method to estimate the need for healthcare resources or the methods are complex and impractical to use. The objective of this study was to find a safe and easy method for the estimation of healthcare resources at sporting events. METHODS A model for the estimation of healthcare resources at music events recently has been approved in Sweden. After minor adjustments, this model was used at sport events by a number of planning officers. The models' accuracy and usability was evaluated by analyzing its outcome in a pilot and a controlled study using different sporting and non-sporting scenarios. RESULTS The pilot study showed that the model was valid and easily could be used for various sporting events. The obtained estimations were consistent with the methods used by experienced planning officers in 97% of cases. The results of the controlled study showed that by using this model, the minimum amount of resources required easily could be calculated at sporting events and by people with different backgrounds. CONCLUSIONS This model safely can be used at sporting events.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Khorram-Manesh2010,
      author = {Khorram-Manesh, Amir and Berner, A and Hedelin, A and Ortenwall, P},
      title = {Estimation of healthcare resources at sporting events},
      journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {25},
      number = {5},
      pages = {449--455},
      note = {PMID: 21053195},
      url = {http://pdm.medicine.wisc.edu/Volume_25/issue_5/khorram-manesh.pdf}
    }
    					
    Kilian2006 Kilian, A. & Stretch, R.A. Analysis of patient load data from the 2003 Cricket World Cup in South Africa 2006 SAJSM
    Vol. 18 , pp. 52-56  
    article 2011.06.22
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kilian2006,
      author = {A. Kilian and R. A. Stretch},
      title = {Analysis of patient load data from the 2003 Cricket World Cup in South Africa},
      journal = {SAJSM},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {18},
      pages = {52-56},
      url = {http://www.sajsm.org.za/index.php/sajsm/article/viewFile/38/38}
    }
    					
    Kim2012 Kim, J.H.; Malhotra, R.; Chiampas, G.; d'Hemecourt, P.; Troyanos, C.; Cianca, J.; Smith, R.N.; Wang, T.J.; Roberts, W.O. & Baggish, P.D.T.A.L. Cardiac Arrest during Long-Distance Running Races 2012 N Engl J Med
    Vol. 366 , pp. 130-140  
    article 2012.05.17
    Abstract: Approximately 2 million people participate in long-distance running races in the United States annually. Reports of race-related cardiac arrests have generated concern about the safety of this activity.

    Methods
    We assessed the incidence and outcomes of cardiac arrest associated with marathon and half-marathon races in the United States from January 1, 2000, to May 31, 2010. We determined the clinical characteristics of the arrests by interviewing survivors and the next of kin of nonsurvivors, reviewing medical records, and analyzing postmortem data.

    Results
    Of 10.9 million runners, 59 (mean [±SD] age, 42±13 years; 51 men) had cardiac arrest (incidence rate, 0.54 per 100,000 participants; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41 to 0.70). Cardiovascular disease accounted for the majority of cardiac arrests. The incidence rate was significantly higher during marathons (1.01 per 100,000; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.38) than during half-marathons (0.27; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.43) and among men (0.90 per 100,000; 95% CI, 0.67 to 1.18) than among women (0.16; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.31). Male marathon runners, the highest-risk group, had an increased incidence of cardiac arrest during the latter half of the study decade (2000–2004, 0.71 per 100,000 [95% CI, 0.31 to 1.40]; 2005–2010, 2.03 per 100,000 [95% CI, 1.33 to 2.98]; P=0.01). Of the 59 cases of cardiac arrest, 42 (71%) were fatal (incidence, 0.39 per 100,000; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.52). Among the 31 cases with complete clinical data, initiation of bystander-administered cardiopulmonary resuscitation and an underlying diagnosis other than hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were the strongest predictors of survival.

    Conclusions
    Marathons and half-marathons are associated with a low overall risk of cardiac arrest and sudden death. Cardiac arrest, most commonly attributable to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or atherosclerotic coronary disease, occurs primarily among male marathon participants; the incidence rate in this group increased during the past decade.

    Dr. Roberts reports holding a board membership with UCare Minnesota, receiving writing fees from Runner's World, and serving as an unpaid, volunteer medical director for the Medtronic Twin Cities Marathon; and Dr. Thompson, receiving consulting fees from Regeneron, Furiex Pharmaceuticals, and Lupin Pharmaceuticals, legal fees for expert testimony in cases related to cardiac arrest in exercise- and statin-related muscle injury, grant funding from GlaxoSmithKline, Genomas, Novartis, Furiex Pharmaceuticals, B. Braun, and Aventis, lecture fees from Merck, Pfizer, AstraZeneca, Kowa, Abbott, and GlaxoSmithKline, support for the development of educational presentations from Merck, and holding stock in Zoll Medical, J.A. Wiley Publishing, General Electric, Zimmer, Medtronic, Johnson & Johnson, Sanofi-Aventis, and Abbott.

    Disclosure forms provided by the authors are available with the full text of this article at NEJM.org.

    No other potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

    We thank Ryan Lamppa at Running USA for providing race-participation numbers; Deborah McDonald for her assistance with participant correspondence and data retrieval; and, most important, the cardiac-arrest survivors and the families of deceased runners for helping us obtain the data necessary for this study

    BibTeX:
    @article{Kim2012,
      author = {Jonathan H. Kim and Rajeev Malhotra and George Chiampas and Pierre d'Hemecourt and Chris Troyanos and John Cianca and Rex N. Smith and Thomas J. Wang and William O. Roberts and Paul D. Thompsonand Aaron L. Baggish},
      title = {Cardiac Arrest during Long-Distance Running Races},
      journal = {N Engl J Med},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {366},
      pages = {130-140},
      note = {(for the Race Associated Cardiac Arrest Event Registry (RACER) Study Group)},
      url = {http://associationdatabase.com/aws/SCAA/asset_manager/get_file/42726/study_on_sca_marathonnejm2012.pdf}
    }
    					
    Kishore2012 Kishore, S. & Soulieres, G. Toronto Host City: Mass Gatherings Risks and Perception 2012   techreport 2013.01.05
    Abstract: Mass gathering is a phenomenon that arises from the unique interactions of people, places and activities (Weed & Bull, 2004)i. It has attracted a lot of attention among scholars and practitioners. A number of literature reviews and surveys have been done with regards to event image perceptions, lessons learned, resident perceptions, risk management, risk perception, crowd behaviour, crowd management and public safety. In view of recent occurrences- ranging from Toronto’s G-20 insurgence to Vancouver’s Stanley Cup riots and the shocking London riots, cities around the world are increasingly falling prey to spontaneous mass gatherings that impact on public safety and crowd behaviour. It has become progressively obvious that the primary factor in assuring a safe and comfortable environment for crowds is planning, understanding the human behaviour dynamic and public perceptionii. This project will examine the dynamics of playing host to mega events and how it impacts all realms of life. Despite the growing importance accorded to mega event (from sports to mass gatherings), limited research has been carried out to understand and explain host perceptions of the impact of such events.iii Ultimately, this study will also engage relevant community partners playing an integral role in preparing for future event hosting, be it the 2015 Pan Am Games or ongoing socio-political , sporting and multicultural annual events that Toronto plays and will play host to, each year.
    Initial ground work undertaken in this area by both teams have shown that while several cities have their ‘event risk and emergency management and policies’ in place, research suggested that public concern and perception can be managed through proper safety training and awareness, emergency response planning, and corrective actions after safety review.
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Kishore2012,
      author = {Sowmya Kishore and Ginette Soulieres},
      title = {Toronto Host City: Mass Gatherings Risks and Perception},
      year = {2012},
      url = {http://www.centennialcollege.ca/pdf/EMPSI/TorontoHostCityMassGatheringsSurveyResults.pdf}
    }
    					
    Korsten Korsten, A.F.A. Het Heizeldrama - Tekortkomingen in de organisatie en voorbereiding van de wedstrijd als oorzaak?   electronic 2011.08.08
    Review: Une analyse des causes du drame du Heizel, en termes de problèmes d'organisation, ainsi qu'une courte bibliographie.
    BibTeX:
    @electronic{Korsten,
      author = {A. F. A. Korsten},
      title = {Het Heizeldrama -- Tekortkomingen in de organisatie en voorbereiding van de wedstrijd als oorzaak?},
      note = {consulté le 8 aout 2011},
      url = {www.arnokorsten.nl/PDF/Crises/Het%20Heizeldrama.pdf}
    }
    					
    Kramer2010 Kramer, E.B. Football emergency medicine 2008 CME
    Vol. 28 , pp. 208-212  
    article 2011.06.27
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kramer2010,
      author = {Efraim B Kramer},
      title = {Football emergency medicine},
      journal = {CME},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {28},
      pages = {208-212}
    }
    					
    Krausz Krausz, B. & Bauckhage, C. Loveparade 2010: Automatic Video Analysis of a Crowd Disaster Computer Vision and Image Understanding   article 2011.09.04
    BibTeX:
    @article{Krausz,
      author = {B. Krausz and C. Bauckhage},
      title = {Loveparade 2010: Automatic Video Analysis of a Crowd Disaster},
      journal = {Computer Vision and Image Understanding}
    }
    					
    Krul2011 Krul, J.; Blankers, M. & Girbes, A.R.J. Substance-Related Health Problems during Rave Parties in the Netherlands (1997–2008) 2011 Plos One
    Vol. 6 , pp. e29620  
    article 2013.02.17
    BibTeX:
    @article{Krul2011,
      author = {Jan Krul and Matthijs Blankers and Armand R. J. Girbes},
      title = {Substance-Related Health Problems during Rave Parties in the Netherlands (1997–2008)},
      journal = {Plos One},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {6},
      pages = {e29620},
      url = {http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0029620}
    }
    					
    Krul2012a Krul, J.; Girbes, A.R. & Sanou, B.T. Increase in serious ecstasy-related incidents in the Netherlands 2012 The Lancet
    Vol. 380 , pp. 1385  
    article 2013.05.25
    Abstract: We have noticed a sudden increase in ecstasy-related incidents in the Netherlands. In this country, rave parties are legal and medical surveillance is provided by specifically trained health-care workers. Medical events are categorised as life-threatening (category 1), not life-threatening but requiring medical assistance (category 2), and other non-serious events (category 3).
    Between 1997 and 2010, 31 cases fulfilling category 1 and 2 criteria related to ecstasy use were recorded out of more than 5 million rave attendees.1, 2 However, in 2011 alone, 26 category 1 or 2 cases were recorded, indicating a striking increase. Although no scientific data exist to indicate the cause of this increase, as workers in the field we suggest that market-related factors such as higher doses of pills and non-uniform doses per pill might be the main cause.
    We therefore warn of more ecstasy-related harm in the population, indicating the need for preventive measures by responsible authorities, more awareness in the population, and better research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Krul2012a,
      author = {Jan Krul and Armand RJ Girbes and Björn T Sanou},
      title = {Increase in serious ecstasy-related incidents in the Netherlands},
      journal = {The Lancet},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {380},
      pages = {1385},
      url = {http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140673612618005.pdf}
    }
    					
    Krul2009 Krul, J. & J.Girbes, A.R. Experience of Health-Related Problems during House Parties in the Netherlands: Nine Years of Experience and Three Million Visitors 2009 Prehosp Disaster Med
    Vol. 24 , pp. 133-139  
    article 2011.12.29
    BibTeX:
    @article{Krul2009,
      author = {Jan Krul and Armand R. J.Girbes},
      title = {Experience of Health-Related Problems during House Parties in the Netherlands: Nine Years of Experience and Three Million Visitors},
      journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {24},
      pages = {133-139},
      url = {http://pdm.medicine.wisc.edu/Volume_24/issue_2/krul.pdf}
    }
    					
    Krul2012 Krul, J.; Sanou, B.; Swarta, E.L. & Girbes, A.R.J. Medical Care at Mass Gatherings: Emergency Medical Services at Large-Scale Rave Events 2012 Prehosp Disaster Med
    Vol. 26 , pp. 1-4  
    article 2012.04.23
    Abstract: Objective: The objective of this study was to develop comprehensive guidelines for medical care during mass gatherings based on the experience of providing medical support during rave parties. Methods: Study design was a prospective, observational study of self-referred patients who reported to First Aid Stations (FASs) during Dutch rave parties. All users of medical care were registered on an existing standard questionnaire. Health problems were categorized as medical, trauma, psychological, or miscellaneous. Severity was assessed based on the Emergency Severity Index. Qualified nurses, paramedics, and doctors conducted the study after training in the use of the study questionnaire. Total number of visitors was reported by type of event. Results: During the 2006–2010 study period, 7,089 persons presented to FASs for medical aid during rave parties. Most of the problems (91.1%) were categorized as medical or trauma, and classified as mild. The most common medical complaints were general unwell-being, nausea, dizziness, and vomiting. Contusions, strains and sprains, wounds, lacerations, and blisters were the most common traumas. A small portion (2.4%) of the emergency aid was classified as moderate (professional medical care required), including two cases (0.03%) that were considered life-threatening. Hospital admission occurred in 2.2% of the patients. Fewer than half of all patients presenting for aid were transported by ambulance. More than a quarter of all cases (27.4%) were related to recreational drugs. Conclusions: During a five-year field research period at rave dance parties, most presentations on-site for medical evaluation were for mild conditions. A medical team of six healthcare workers for every 10,000 rave party visitors is recommended. On-site medical staff should consist primarily of first aid providers, along with nurses who have event-specific training on advanced life support, event-specific injuries and incidents, health education related to self-care deficits, interventions for psychological distress, infection control, and disaster medicine. Protocols should be available for treating common injuries and other minor medical problems, and for registration, triage, environmental surveillance and catastrophe management and response.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Krul2012,
      author = {Jan Krul and Björn Sanou and Eleonara L Swarta and and Armand R J Girbes},
      title = {Medical Care at Mass Gatherings: Emergency Medical Services at Large-Scale Rave Events},
      journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {26},
      pages = {1-4},
      url = {http://kcev.nl/wp-content/uploads/S1049023X12000271a.pdf}
    }
    					
    Kvaloy2007 Kvaloy, J.T. & Skogvoll, E. Modelling seasonal and weather dependency of cardiac arrests using the covariate order method 2007 Statistics in Medicine
    Vol. 26 (17) , pp. 3315-3329  
    article 1a
    Abstract: Abstract A data set concerning cardiac arrests treated by the Emergency Medical Service in Trondheim during a nine year period is analysed. The relationship between the occurrence of cardiac arrest and covariates related to weather and season is examined. The covariate order method is used in the analysis of the data. It is explained how this method can be extended to recurrent event data, and the practical usefulness and flexibility of the method is demonstrated in these analyses.In the analyses a significant relationship between outdoor air temperature, or factors closely related to outdoor air temperature, and the occurrence of cardiac arrest is found. The incidence of cardiac arrest decreases with increasing temperature. Further a significant effect of snowfall is also found, with increased intensity of cardiac arrest on days with snowfall. A more borderline significant effect of precipitation is also identified. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kvaloy2007,
      author = {Kvaloy, Jan Terje and Skogvoll, Eirik},
      title = {Modelling seasonal and weather dependency of cardiac arrests using the covariate order method},
      journal = {Statistics in Medicine},
      publisher = {John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {26},
      number = {17},
      pages = {3315--3329},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sim.2772},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sim.2772}
    }
    					
    Landry2008 Landry, P. & Slama, S. Pèlerinages et grands rassemblements : épidémiologie et prévention 2008 Rev Med Suisse
    Vol. 4 , pp. 1192-1195  
    article 2012.06.10
    BibTeX:
    @article{Landry2008,
      author = {Pierre Landry and Slim Slama},
      title = {Pèlerinages et grands rassemblements : épidémiologie et prévention},
      journal = {Rev Med Suisse},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {4},
      pages = {1192-1195},
      url = {http://rms.medhyg.ch/numero-157-page-1192.htm}
    }
    					
    Lapostolle2010 Lapostolle, F.; Dubien, P.-Y.; Perfus, J.-P.; Gorodetzky, N. & Steen, L. Société Française de Médecine d'Urgence Rassemblements de foule & gestion médicale événementielle 2010 Urgences et situations d’exception - Journées scientifiques de la Société Française de Médecine d’Urgence 2009 - SFEM Editions  standard 2012.06.20
    Abstract: Ces recommandations sont issues des travaux de consensus de l’atelier 6 des journées scientifiques de la SFMU à Lyon, en 2009.

    1 - Introduction
    2 - Les couvertures médicales s’adressent
    3 - Arsenal législatif
    4 - Objectifs
    5 - Recommandations
    ANNEXE 1 - Schéma Directeur Secours Santé (SDSS)
    ANNEXE 2 - Dispositif préventif médical (DPM)
    ANNEXE 3 - Tableaux de critères de risques - Recommandations pour aider au choix de dispositifs

    BibTeX:
    @standard{Lapostolle2010,
      author = {F. Lapostolle and P.-Y. Dubien and J.-P. Perfus and N. Gorodetzky and L. Steen},
      title = {Rassemblements de foule & gestion médicale événementielle},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://www.samu-de-france.fr/fr/ressources_pro/informations/information_ca/front/afficher/rassemblements_de_foule_amp_gestion_meacutedicale_eacuteveacutenementielle-ref/?id_actu=690}
    }
    					
    CabinetOffice2009_a Leigh, M.; Robinson, M.A. & Challenger, C.W.C.R. The Cabinet Office Emergency Planning College Understanding Crowd Behaviours: A Guide for Readers 2009   manual 2013.02.03
    BibTeX:
    @manual{CabinetOffice2009_a,
      author = {Mark Leigh and Mark A. Robinson and Chris W. Clegg Rose Challenger},
      title = {Understanding Crowd Behaviours: A Guide for Readers},
      year = {2009},
      url = {http://www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/resource-library/understanding-crowd-behaviours-documents}
    }
    					
    Lekka2010 Lekka, C.; Webster, J. & Corbett, C.E. A literature review of the health and safety risks associated with major sporting events - Learning lessons for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic games 2010 (RR811)   techreport 2012.03.30
    Abstract: This work was commissioned by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) to provide an understanding of the potential hazards and risks associated with hosting the Olympic Games in Great Britain in 2012, as well as potential control measures that could be applied to these. The literature search yielded 384 papers, of which 80 met the inclusion criteria. These papers were then reviewed by the research team and summarised by emergent topics. The topics included: construction, public health and safety risks, road accidents, injuries, musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), crowd safety, emergency planning and response, volunteers, workplace violence, fire safety, electrical hazards and carbon monoxide/gas safety.
    Each of the topics is summarised by the risks identified from previous Olympic events and major sporting events, followed by controls that were applied or identified as potentially useful. The controls often provided practical ways to reduce risks, or to mitigate negative outcomes.
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Lekka2010,
      author = {Chrysanthi Lekka and Jennifer Webster and CPsychol Edward Corbett},
      title = {A literature review of the health and safety risks associated with major sporting events -- Learning lessons for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic games},
      year = {2010},
      number = {RR811},
      url = {http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr811.pdf}
    }
    					
    Leusveld2008 Leusveld, E.; Kleijn, S. & Umans, V.A.W.M. Usefulness of Emergency Medical Teams in Sport Stadiums 2008 The American Journal of Cardiology
    Vol. 101 (5) , pp. 712-714  
    article 2012.04.23
    BibTeX:
    @article{Leusveld2008,
      author = {E. Leusveld and S. Kleijn and V. A. W. M. Umans},
      title = {Usefulness of Emergency Medical Teams in Sport Stadiums},
      journal = {The American Journal of Cardiology},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {101},
      number = {5},
      pages = {712-714}
    }
    					
    Levens1971 Levens, L.K. & Durham, J.E. Pop-Music Festivals: Some Medical Aspects 1971 The British Medical Journal
    Vol. 1 (5742) , pp. pp. 218-220  
    article 1a
    BibTeX:
    @article{Levens1971,
      author = {Levens, L. K. and Durham, J. E.},
      title = {Pop-Music Festivals: Some Medical Aspects},
      journal = {The British Medical Journal},
      publisher = {BMJ Publishing Group},
      year = {1971},
      volume = {1},
      number = {5742},
      pages = {pp. 218-220},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/25413187}
    }
    					
    Lewis1989 Lewis, J.M. A value-added analysis of the Heysel Stadium soccer riot 1989 Current Psychology
    Vol. 8 (1) , pp. 15-29  
    article 1a
    Abstract: On May 29, 1985, a riot occurred at the European Cup Final soccer championship between Liverpool and Juventus at Heysel Stadium in Brussels, Belgium. The riot, which caused the death of thirty-nine soccer fans, had a profound effect on English society as well as on professional soccer. This essay uses Smelser's 0962) general model of collective behavior to analyze data derived from a number of sources describing the Heysel Stadium riot. In particular, this analysis focuses on a period of four hours, from the beginning of the riot at about 7:30 p.m. until the conclusion of the match around 11:30 p.m.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lewis1989,
      author = {Lewis, Jerry M.},
      title = {A value-added analysis of the Heysel Stadium soccer riot},
      journal = {Current Psychology},
      year = {1989},
      volume = {8},
      number = {1},
      pages = {15--29},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/aw10162650175323/},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02686734}
    }
    					
    LoCicero LoCicero, N. Establishing Standard Operations Guidelines for Events of Mass Assembly and Special Events   techreport 2011.11.13
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{LoCicero,
      author = {Nick LoCicero},
      title = {Establishing Standard Operations Guidelines for Events of Mass Assembly and Special Events}
    }
    					
    Locoh-Donou2013 Locoh-Donou, S.; Guofen, Y.; Welcher, M.; Berry, T.; O'Connor, R.E. & Brady, W.J. Mass-gathering medicine: a descriptive analysis of a range of mass-gathering event types 2013 American Journal of Emergency Medicine
    Vol. 31 , pp. 843-846  
    article 2013.05.25
    Review: moyennes avec déviations standard. Confirme que ce sont des variables de Poisson.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Locoh-Donou2013,
      author = {Samuel Locoh-Donou and Yan Guofen and Melanie Welcher and Thomas Berry and Robert E. O'Connor and William J. Brady},
      title = {Mass-gathering medicine: a descriptive analysis of a range of mass-gathering event types},
      journal = {American Journal of Emergency Medicine},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {31},
      pages = {843-846}
    }
    					
    Logan2011 Logan, J.H. EMS Consequence Management: The ICS Elephant in the Room - Break down this ICS animal into manageable portions to gain competency at all levels 2011 website EMSworld  misc 2011.06.24
    BibTeX:
    @misc{Logan2011,
      author = {J. Harold Logan},
      title = {EMS Consequence Management: The ICS Elephant in the Room -- Break down this ICS animal into manageable portions to gain competency at all levels},
      year = {2011},
      url = {http://www.emsworld.com/features/article.jsp?id=16053&siteSection=4}
    }
    					
    Logan2011a Logan, J.H. EMS Consequence Management: Special Events and Mass Gatherings - An exercise for emergency preparedness 2011 website, EMSworld  misc 2011.06.24
    BibTeX:
    @misc{Logan2011a,
      author = {J. Harold Logan},
      title = {EMS Consequence Management: Special Events and Mass Gatherings -- An exercise for emergency preparedness},
      year = {2011},
      url = {http://www.emsworld.com/web/online/Operations/EMS-Consequence-Management--Special-Events-and-Mass-Gatherings/4$16809}
    }
    					
    Lombardo2008 Lombardo, J.S.; Sniegoski, C.A.; Loschen, W.A.; Westercamp, M.; Wade, M.; Dearth, S. & Zhang, G. Public Health Surveillance for Mass Gatherings 2008 Johns Hopkins APL technical digest
    Vol. 27 , pp. 347-355 http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=20437292 
    article 1a
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lombardo2008,
      author = {Joseph S. Lombardo and Carol A. Sniegoski and Wayne A. Loschen and Matthew Westercamp and Michael Wade and Shandy Dearth and Guoyan Zhang},
      title = {Public Health Surveillance for Mass Gatherings},
      journal = {Johns Hopkins APL technical digest},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {27},
      pages = {347-355},
      url = {http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=20437292}
    }
    					
    Lorenzo1993 Lorenzo, R.A.D.; Boyle, M.F. & Garrison, R. A Proposed Model for a Residency Experience in Mass Gathering Medicine: The United States Air Show 1993 Ann Emerg Med
    Vol. 22 , pp. 68-71  
    article 2013.02.17
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lorenzo1993,
      author = {Robert A De Lorenzo and Michael F Boyle and Richard Garrison},
      title = {A Proposed Model for a Residency Experience in Mass Gathering Medicine: The United States Air Show},
      journal = {Ann Emerg Med},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {22},
      pages = {68-71}
    }
    					
    Lorenzo1997 Lorenzo, R.D. Mass gathering medicine: A review. 1997 Prehosp Disaster Med
    Vol. 12 , pp. 68-72  
    article 2011.09.21
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lorenzo1997,
      author = {R. De Lorenzo},
      title = {Mass gathering medicine: A review.},
      journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {12},
      pages = {68-72}
    }
    					
    Lund2011 Lund, A.; Gutman, S.J. & Turris, S.A. Mass gathering medicine: a practical means of enhancing disaster preparedness in Canada 2011 Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine
    Vol. 13 , pp. 231-236  
    article 2012.04.09
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lund2011,
      author = {Adam Lund and Samuel J. Gutman and Sheila A. Turris},
      title = {Mass gathering medicine: a practical means of enhancing disaster preparedness in Canada},
      journal = {Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {13},
      pages = {231-236},
      url = {http://www.cjem-online.ca/v13/n4/p231}
    }
    					
    Maas2008 Maas, H.; Snelder, N.; Danhof, M. & Pasqua, O.D. Prediction of attack frequency in migraine treatment 2008 Cephalalgia
    Vol. 28 (8) , pp. 847-855  
    article 1a
    Abstract: Usually limited information about the frequency of migraine episodes is derived from acute migraine trials. However, the design of some studies is such that they also provide relevant information about the attack frequency without the bias associated with patient expectations of treatment effect between attacks during prophylaxis trials. Using clinical data from repeated migraine attacks treated with placebo, naratriptan 2.5 mg or sumatriptan 100 mg, we show that attack and interictal periods can be described by a random probability distribution. Based on a gamma distribution, the mean interval between attacks was estimated to be 24 (17–34) days for placebo, 23 (18–29) days for naratriptan 2.5 mg and 22 (17–28) for sumatriptan 100 mg. These findings suggest that the interictal interval is not affected by abortive treatment with triptans. Interpretation of these results may be limited by the study type, yet the method represents a new tool for the evaluation of disease dynamics and treatment effect in the prophylaxis of migraine.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Maas2008,
      author = {Maas, HJ and Snelder, N and Danhof, M and Pasqua, O Della},
      title = {Prediction of attack frequency in migraine treatment},
      journal = {Cephalalgia},
      publisher = {Blackwell Publishing Ltd},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {28},
      number = {8},
      pages = {847--855},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2982.2008.01621.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2982.2008.01621.x}
    }
    					
    Madzimbamuto2003 Madzimbamuto, F.D. A hospital response to a soccer stadium stampede in Zimbabwe 2003 Emerg Med J
    Vol. 20 , pp. 556-559  
    article 2013.02.11
    BibTeX:
    @article{Madzimbamuto2003,
      author = {F. D. Madzimbamuto},
      title = {A hospital response to a soccer stadium stampede in Zimbabwe},
      journal = {Emerg Med J},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {20},
      pages = {556-559},
      url = {http://emj.bmj.com/content/20/6/556.full.pdf+html}
    }
    					
    MARION2008 MARION, R.; PAPET, F.; CHIEZE, F.; SAUX, Y.L. & HAN, D. Evaluation du dispositif de sécurité mis en place pour la coupe du monde de rugby 2007 2008   techreport 2011.06.21
    Abstract: secours-santé spécifique et pléthorique (assurée par la
    fédération nationale de la mutualité française) dont l’articulation avec le dispositif
    « traditionnel » de secours-santé aurait été, en cas de besoin, difficile.
    Les fonctions de coordination ont connu des difficultés en administration centrale. Les
    circulaires relatives à l’événement tant du ministère de l’intérieur que du ministère de la santé
    sont intervenues trop tardivement pour être pleinement utiles. La planification de la plus
    grande part du dispositif de l’Etat a été assurée par les services déconcentrés sous l’autorité du
    préfet.
    La mission n’a pas été en mesure de porter un jugement sur le caractère suffisant du niveau
    d’indemnisation de l’Etat au titre des services d’ordre assurés au bénéfice de l’organisateur.
    En revanche, la mission s’est intéressée au coût global pour l’Etat de la coupe du monde de
    rugby. Celui-ci est important. La mission a ainsi fourni une estimation de la charge pour les
    forces de police et de gendarmerie nationales de l’événement et s’est appuyée sur les travaux
    du ministère des sports pour chiffrer les autres dépenses de soutien à l’événement.
    La mission s’est enfin intéressée aux relations financières entre l’Etat et le comité
    d’organisation de la coupe du monde de rugby.
    Elles apparaissent déséquilibrées. Ainsi alors que l’Etat aurait pris en charge près de la moitié
    des éventuelles pertes d’exploitation, il n’a en revanche rien reçu des bénéfices réalisés en
    application de clauses qu’il a lui-même approuvées en octobre 2004 (article 24 de la
    convention constitutive du groupement d’intérêt public « coupe du monde de rugby 2007 ») et
    en février 2005 (article 8 du règlement financier du GIP « coupe du monde de rugby 2007 »).
    Ainsi, l’intégralité des plus de 30 millions d’euros de bénéfices de la coupe du monde de
    rugby a été dévolue à la fédération française de rugby, cette dernière devant les employer en
    3
    faveur du « développement du rugby ». L’Etat ne dispose pas de leviers d’action sur
    l’utilisation de cette somme exceptionnelle.
    Ce partage asymétrique est pour le moins étonnant. L’Etat a fourni des moyens matériels et
    humains et a assumé un risque financier mais n’est en rien associé aux éventuels résultats
    positifs de l’exercice.
    La mission estime, à tout le moins, que ce type de montage est à proscrire pour l’avenir.
    La politique de soutien au développement du sport ne peut passer que par des relations
    équilibrées entre la puissance publique et les fédérations sportives nationales.
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{MARION2008,
      author = {Roger MARION and Frédéric PAPET and and François CHIEZE and Yannick LE SAUX and Dominique HAN},
      title = {Evaluation du dispositif de sécurité mis en place pour la coupe du monde de rugby 2007},
      year = {2008},
      url = {http://www.interieur.gouv.fr/sections/a_votre_service/publications/rapports-iga/secu-civile-prev-risques/08-029-01/downloadFile/attachedFile/08-029-01_-_Coupe_du_monde_de_rugby.pdf?nocache=1288771764.1}
    }
    					
    Martin-Gill2007 Martin-Gill, C.; Brady, W.J.; Barlotta, K.; Yoder, A.; Williamson, A.; Sojka, B.; Haugh, D.; Martin, M.L.; Sidebottom, M. & Sandridge, L. Hospital-based healthcare provider (nurse and physician) integration into an emergency medical services-managed mass-gathering event 2007 The American Journal of Emergency Medicine
    Vol. 25 (1) , pp. 15-22  
    article 1a
    Abstract: INTRODUCTION: This report describes not only the implementation of a coordinated emergency medical services-hospital-based healthcare team but also investigates the integration of nurse-physician teams at a mass gathering medical care event. METHODS: A review of resource utilization, patient encounters, and local ED census was performed during this period at a college football stadium. RESULTS: During this 4-year period, 1681 patients presented for medical care during 26 events with a total attendance of 1,544,244 (1.09 patients per thousand attendees [PT]). The majority of patient contacts were for minor complaints (1451, 87.6, whereas 205 (12.4 received full evaluations (focused history and physical examination most often with pulse oximetric and electrocardiographic monitoring). A total of 109 patients were transported (4.19 PT), representing 6.48% of all patients. Patient census for the event medical deployment increased from 0.44 PT in 2001 to 1.75 PT in 2004. The number and percent of patients transported also increased between 2001 (0.02 PT, 4.48 and 2004 (0.12 PT, 6.67. However, 118 (57.6 patients who received full evaluations were able to be discharged by a physician, avoiding transport. Chief complaints and management of patients receiving full evaluations were consistent across this period, with altered mental status (52.7 and chest pain (12.7 as the most common complaints. Average ED census during this period was found to be significantly higher on event days (176.2) than nonevent days (161.2) (t = 8.04, P textless .001), although this produced only a minor impact on the emergent care system. CONCLUSION: This study describes one potential deployment plan for a mass gathering medical event and suggests that the incorporation of physicians into a mass gathering setting may be associated with an absolute increase in patient census and transports, while decreasing the percent of patients transported. The impact on local emergency medical services and ED resources, although not specifically investigated in this study, was likely minimal.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Martin-Gill2007,
      author = {Christian Martin-Gill and William J Brady and Kevin Barlotta and Anthony Yoder and Allen Williamson and Benjamin Sojka and Dayton Haugh and Marcus L Martin and Marge Sidebottom and Leonard Sandridge},
      title = {Hospital-based healthcare provider (nurse and physician) integration into an emergency medical services-managed mass-gathering event},
      journal = {The American Journal of Emergency Medicine},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {25},
      number = {1},
      pages = {15--22},
      note = {PMID: 17157677},
      url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17157677},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2006.07.003}
    }
    					
    McCloskey2010 McCloskey, B. Mass gathering multidisciplinary planning for London 2012 2010 The Lancet Conferences -- Mass gathering medicine   inproceedings 2011.06.21
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{McCloskey2010,
      author = {Brian McCloskey},
      title = {Mass gathering multidisciplinary planning for London 2012},
      booktitle = {The Lancet Conferences -- Mass gathering medicine},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://conferences.thelancet.com/sites/massgatherings/files/presentations/mccloskey.pdf}
    }
    					
    McCloskey2013 McCloskey, B. & Endericks, T. HPA London WHO Collaborating Centre Learning from London 2012 : A practical guide to public health and mass gatherings 2013   manual 2013.05.25
    BibTeX:
    @manual{McCloskey2013,
      author = {Brian McCloskey and Tina Endericks,},
      title = {Learning from London 2012 : A practical guide to public health and mass gatherings},
      year = {2013},
      url = {http://www.hpa.org.uk/Publications/EmergencyPreparationAndResponse/1303LearningfromLondon2012/}
    }
    					
    McQueen2012 McQueen, C. & Davies, C. Health care in a unique setting: applying emergency medicine at music festivals 2012 Open Access Emergency Medicine
    Vol. 4 , pp. 69-73  
    article 2013.02.11
    BibTeX:
    @article{McQueen2012,
      author = {C. McQueen and C. Davies},
      title = {Health care in a unique setting: applying emergency medicine at music festivals},
      journal = {Open Access Emergency Medicine},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {4},
      pages = {69-73},
      url = {http://www.dovepress.com/health-care-in-a-unique-setting-applying-emergency-medicine-at-music-f-peer-reviewed-article-OAEM}
    }
    					
    McQueen2010 McQueen, C.P. Care of children at a large outdoor music festival in the United Kingdom 2010 Prehosp Disaster Med
    Vol. 25 (3) , pp. 223-226  
    article 1a
    Abstract: INTRODUCTION Limited data exist on the standard of care provided for children at mass gatherings and special events (MGSE). Some studies provide valuable insight into the proportion of pediatric patients that can be expected at various types of MGSEs, but an accurate breakdown of the range of pediatric conditions treated at major events has yet to be produced. Such data are essential for the preparation of MGSEs so that the health and safety of children at such events can be adequately safeguarded. The aim of this study is to examine the care requirements for children at a large, outdoor music festival in the United Kingdom. METHODS A retrospective review of all patient report forms (PRFs) from a large, outdoor music festival held in Leeds (UK) in 2003. Data were extracted from the PRFs using a standardized proforma and analyzed using an Excel computer program. RESULTS Pediatric cases contributed approximately 15% to the overall workload at the event. Children presented with a range of conditions that varied from those seen in the adult population. Children were more likely than adults to present for medical attention following crush injuries (OR = 2.536; 95% CI = 1.537-4.187); after a collapse/syncopal episode (OR = 2.687; 95% CI = 1.442-5.007); or complaining of nausea (OR = 3.484; 95% CI = 2.089-5.813). Alcohol/drugs were less likely to be involved in the precipitating cause for medical attention in children compared to adults (OR = 0.477; 95% CI = 0.250-0.912). No critical care incidents involving children were encountered during the event. CONCLUSIONS Mass gatherings and special events in the UK, such as outdoor music festivals, can involve a large number of children who access medical care for a different range of conditions compared to adults. The care of children at large, outdoor music events should not be overlooked. Event planning in the UK should include measures to ensure that appropriately trained and equipped medical teams are used at music festivals to safeguard the welfare of children who may attend. Further research into this exciting area is required.
    BibTeX:
    @article{McQueen2010,
      author = {Carl PC. McQueen},
      title = {Care of children at a large outdoor music festival in the United Kingdom},
      journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {25},
      number = {3},
      pages = {223--226},
      note = {PMID: 20586015},
      url = {http://pdm.medicine.wisc.edu/Volume_25/issue_3/mcqueen.pdf}
    }
    					
    Meites2010 Meites, E. & Brown, J.F. Ambulance need at mass gatherings 2010 Prehosp Disaster Med
    Vol. 25 (6) , pp. 511-514  
    article 1a
    Abstract: INTRODUCTION Scant evidence exists to guide policy-making around public health needs during mass gatherings. In 2006, the City and County of San Francisco began requiring standby ambulances at all mass gatherings with attendance of textgreater15,500 people. The objectives were to evaluate needs for ambulances at mass gatherings, and to make evidence-based recommendations for public health policy-makers. The hypothesis was that the needs for ambulances at mass gatherings can be estimated using community baseline data. METHODS Emergency medical services plans were reviewed for all public events with an anticipated attendance of textgreater1,000 people in San Francisco County during the 12-month period 01 August 2006 through 31 July 2007. Ambulance transport data were confirmed by event coordinators and ambulance company records, and the rate was calculated by dividing ambulance transports by event attendance. Baseline ambulance transport rate was calculated by dividing the annual ambulance transports in the county's computer-aided dispatch system by the census population estimate. The risk ratio was calculated using the risk of transport from a mass gathering compared with the baseline risk of ambulance transport for the local community. Significance testing and confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS Descriptive information was available for 100% of events and ambulance transport data available for 97% of events. The majority of the mass gatherings (47 unique events; 59 event days) were outdoor, weekend festivals, parades, or concerts, though a large proportion were athletic events. The ambulance transport rate from mass gatherings was 1 per 59,000 people every six hours. Baseline ambulance transport rate in San Francisco was 1 per 20,000 people every six hours. The transport rate from mass gatherings was significantly lower than the community baseline (risk ratio [RR]=0.15, 95% CI=0.10-0.22, ptextless0.001). At events reserving a standby ambulance, 46% of ambulances were unused. DISCUSSION San Francisco mass gatherings appear to present a lower risk of ambulance transports compared to the community baseline, suggesting that the community baseline sets an appropriate standard for requiring standby ambulances at mass gatherings. The initial ambulance requirement policy in San Francisco may have been overly conservative. CONCLUSIONS Local baseline data is a recommended starting point when setting policy for public health needs at mass gatherings.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Meites2010,
      author = {Meites, Elissa and Brown, John F},
      title = {Ambulance need at mass gatherings},
      journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {25},
      number = {6},
      pages = {511--514},
      note = {PMID: 21181684},
      url = {http://pdm.medicine.wisc.edu/Volume_25/issue_6/meites.pdf}
    }
    					
    Michael1997 Michael, J.A. & Barbera, J.A. Mass Gathering Medical Care: A Twenty-Five Year Review 1997 Prehosp Disaster Med
    Vol. 12 , pp. 306-312  
    article 2011.09.20
    BibTeX:
    @article{Michael1997,
      author = {John A. Michael and Joseph A. Barbera},
      title = {Mass Gathering Medical Care: A Twenty-Five Year Review},
      journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {12},
      pages = {306-312},
      url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10179212}
    }
    					
    Millan2001 Millán, E.M.; Quintero, F.B. & Ruiz, M.J.E. Planificación y gestión de la cobertura sanitaria y de salud pública en acontecimientos deportivos 2001 Emergencias y catastrofes
    Vol. 2 (3) , pp. 145-155  
    article 2011.08.15
    BibTeX:
    @article{Millan2001,
      author = {E. Moreno Millán and F. Bonilla Quintero and M. J. Escalante Ruiz},
      title = {Planificación y gestión de la cobertura sanitaria y de salud pública en acontecimientos deportivos},
      journal = {Emergencias y catastrofes},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {2},
      number = {3},
      pages = {145-155},
      url = {http://www.medynet.com/usuarios/jraguilar/Planificacion%20y%20gestion%20de.pdf}
    }
    					
    Milsten2002 Milsten, A.M.; Maguire, B.J.; Bissell, R.A. & Seaman, K.G. Mass-gathering medical care: a review of the literature 2002 Prehosp Disaster Med
    Vol. 17 (3) , pp. 151-162  
    article 1a
    Abstract: Mass-gatherings events provide a difficult setting for which to plan an appropriate emergency medical response. Many of the variables that affect the level and types of medical needs, have not been fully researched. This review examines these variables. METHODS: An extensive review was conducted using the computerized databases Medline and Healthstar from 1977 through May 2002. Articles selected contained information pertaining to mass-gathering variables. These articles were read, abstracted, analyzed, and compiled. RESULTS: Multiple variables are present during a mass gathering, and they interact in complex and dynamic ways. The interaction of these variables contributes to the number of patients treated at an event (medical usage rate) as well as the observed injury patterns. Important variables include weather, event type, event duration, age, crowd mood and density, attendance, and alcohol and drug use. CONCLUSIONS: Developing an understanding of the variables associated with mass gatherings should be the first step for event planners. After these variables are considered, a thorough needs analysis can be performed and resource allocation can be based on objective data.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Milsten2002,
      author = {Andrew M Milsten and Brian J Maguire and Rick A Bissell and Kevin G Seaman},
      title = {Mass-gathering medical care: a review of the literature},
      journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {17},
      number = {3},
      pages = {151--162},
      note = {PMID: 12627919},
      url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12627919}
    }
    					
    Milsten2003 Milsten, A.M.; Seaman, K.G.; Liu, P.; Bissell, R.A. & Maguire, B.J. Variables Influencing Medical Usage Rates, Injury Patterns, and Levels of Care for Mass Gatherings 2003 Prehosp Disaster Med
    Vol. 18 (4) , pp. 334-346  
    article 2011.09.04
    Abstract: Abstract
    Objectives: Mass gatherings create difficult environments for which to plan
    emergency medical responses. The purpose of this study was to identify
    those variables that are associated with increased medical usage rates
    (MURs) and certain injury patterns that can be used to facilitate the planning
    process.
    Methods: Patient information collected at three types of mass gatherings
    (professional American football and baseball games and rock concerts) over
    a three-year period was reviewed retrospectively. Specific variables were
    abstracted: (1) event type; (2) gender; (3) age; (4) weather; and (5) attendance.
    All 216 events (total attendance 9,708,567) studied were held in the
    same metropolitan region. All MURs are reported as patients per 10,000
    (PPTT).
    Results: The 5,899 patient encounters yielded a MUR of 6.1 PPTT. Patient
    encounters totaled 3,659 for baseball games (4.85 PPTT), 1,204 for football
    games (6.75 PPTT), and 1,036 for rock concerts (30 PPTT). The MUR for
    Location A concerts (no mosh pits) was 7.49 PPTT, whereas the MUR for
    the one Location B concert (with mosh pits) was 110 PPTT. The MUR for
    Location A concerts was higher than for baseball, but not football games (p
    = 0.005). Gender distribution was equal among patrons seeking medical
    care. The mean values for patient ages were 29 years at baseball games, 33
    years at football games, and 20 years at concerts. The MUR at events held
    when the apparent temperature was £80°F significantly lower statistically
    than that at events conducted at temperatures <80°F were (18°C) (4.90 vs.
    8.10 PPTT (p = 0.005)). The occurrence of precipitation and increased
    attendance did not predict an increased MUR. Medical care was sought
    mostly for minor/basic-level care (84%) and less so for advanced-level care
    (16%). Medical cases occurred more often at sporting events (69%), and
    were more common than were cases with traumatic injuries (31%). Concerts
    with precipitation and rock concerts had a positive association with the incidence
    of trauma and the incidence of injuries; whereas age and gender were
    not associated with medical or traumatic diagnoses.
    Conclusions: Event type and apparent temperature were the variables that
    best predicted MUR as well as specific injury patterns and levels of care.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Milsten2003,
      author = {Andrew M. Milsten and Kevin G. Seaman and Peter Liu and Rick A. Bissell and Brain J. Maguire},
      title = {Variables Influencing Medical Usage Rates, Injury Patterns, and Levels of Care for Mass Gatherings},
      journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {18},
      number = {4},
      pages = {334-346},
      url = {http://pdm.medicine.wisc.edu/Volume_18/issue_4/milsten.pdf}
    }
    					
    Moore2011 Moore, R.; Williamson, K.; Sochor, M. & Bradys, W.J. Large-event medicine - event characteristics impacting medical need 2011 Am J Emerg Medicine
    Vol. 29 , pp. 1217-1221  
    article 2012.06.18
    BibTeX:
    @article{Moore2011,
      author = {Riley Moore and Kelly Williamson and Mark Sochor and William J. Bradys},
      title = {Large-event medicine -- event characteristics impacting medical need},
      journal = {Am J Emerg Medicine},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {29},
      pages = {1217-1221},
      url = {http://www.ajemjournal.com/article/S0735-6757(10)00384-0/abstract}
    }
    					
    ConcertViolence morga364 Concert Violence 2010 blog  misc 2011.06.23
    BibTeX:
    @misc{ConcertViolence,
      author = {morga364},
      title = {Concert Violence},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://blog.lib.umn.edu/morga364/myblog2/2010/04/}
    }
    					
    Morimura2004 Morimura, N.; Katsumi, A.; Koido, Y.; Sugimoto, K.; Fuse, A.; Asai, Y.; Ishii, N.; Ishihara, T.; Fujii, C.; Sugiyama, M.; Henmi, H. & Yamamoto, Y. Analysis of patient load data from the 2002 FIFA World Cup Korea/Japan 2004 Prehosp Disaster Med
    Vol. 19 , pp. 278-284  
    article 2011.06.22
    BibTeX:
    @article{Morimura2004,
      author = {N. Morimura and A. Katsumi and Y. Koido and K. Sugimoto and A. Fuse and Y. Asai and N. Ishii and T. Ishihara and C. Fujii and M. Sugiyama and H. Henmi and Y. Yamamoto},
      title = {Analysis of patient load data from the 2002 FIFA World Cup Korea/Japan},
      journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {19},
      pages = {278-284},
      url = {http://pdm.medicine.wisc.edu/Volume_19/issue_3/morimura.pdf}
    }
    					
    morga364 n A Brief History of Concert Violence   unpublished 2012.03.23
    BibTeX:
    @unpublished{morga364,
      author = {n},
      title = {A Brief History of Concert Violence},
      url = {http://blog.lib.umn.edu/morga364/myblog2/2010/04/}
    }
    					
    Neary Neary, K.S. Ultimate Guide to the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade - Security and logistics   electronic 2011.07.07
    BibTeX:
    @electronic{Neary,
      author = {Kathleen Seiler Neary},
      title = {Ultimate Guide to the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade -- Security and logistics},
      url = {http://tlc.howstuffworks.com/family/macys-thanksgiving-day-parade4.htm}
    }
    					
    Nguyen2008 Nguyen, R.B.; Milsten, A.M. & Cushman, J.T. Injury patterns and levels of care at a marathon 2008 Prehosp Disaster Med
    Vol. 23 (6) , pp. 519-525  
    article 1a
    Abstract: INTRODUCTION Marathons pose many challenges to event planners. The medical services needed at such events have not received extensive coverage in the literature. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to document injury patterns and medical usage at a category III mass gathering (a marathon), with the goal of helping event planners organize medical resources for large public gatherings. METHODS Prospectively obtained medical care reports from the five first-aid stations set up along the marathon route were reviewed. Primary and secondary reasons for seeking medical care were categorized. Weather data were obtained, and ambient temperature was recorded. RESULTS The numbers of finishers were as follows: 4,837 in the marathon (3,099 males, 1,738 females), 814 in the 5K race (362 males, 452 females), and 393 teams in the four-person relay (1,572). Two hundred fifty-one runners sought medical care. The day's temperatures ranged from 39 to 73 degrees F (mean, 56 degrees F). The primary reasons for seeking medical were medication request (26, musculoskeletal injuries (18, dehydration (14, and dermal injuries (11. Secondary reasons were musculoskeletal injuries (34, dizziness (19, dermal injuries (11, and headaches (9. Treatment times ranged from 3 to 25.5 minutes and lengthened as the day progressed. Two-thirds of those who sought medical care did so at the end of the race. The majority of runners who sought medical attention had not run a marathon before. CONCLUSIONS Marathon planners should allocate medical resources in favor of the halfway point and the final first-aid station. Resources and medical staff should be moved from the earlier tents to further augment the later first-aid stations before the majority of racers reach the middle- and later-distance stations.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Nguyen2008,
      author = {Nguyen, Richard B and Milsten, Andrew M and Cushman, Jeremy T},
      title = {Injury patterns and levels of care at a marathon},
      journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {23},
      number = {6},
      pages = {519--525},
      note = {PMID: 19557968},
      url = {http://pdm.medicine.wisc.edu/Volume_23/issue_6/nguyen.pdf}
    }
    					
    Noakes2006 Noakes, T.; Brukner & Khan Brukner & Khan (Hrsg.) Medical Coverage of Endurance Events ( Clinical sports medicine ) 2006 Clinical sports medicine , pp. 969-975   inbook 2011.08.15
    BibTeX:
    @inbook{Noakes2006,
      author = {Timothy Noakes and Brukner And Khan},
      title = {Clinical sports medicine},
      publisher = {Mcgraw-Hill Australia},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {969-975},
      edition = {3rd Edition},
      url = {http://www.hartserv.co.uk/uploads/74_Guide%20lines%20for%20Medical%20Cover%20at%20endurance%20events.pdf}
    }
    					
    O'Donnell1998 O'Donnell, J.J.; Gleeson, A.P. & Smith, H. Edinburgh's Hogmanay celebrations: beyond a major disaster. 1998 Journal of Accident & Emergency Medicine
    Vol. 15 (4) , pp. 272-273  
    article 1a
    Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of Edinburgh's Hogmanay celebrations on the city's accident and emergency (A&E) service. METHODS: Retrospective analysis. RESULTS: A crowd estimated at more than 350,000 attended the celebrations. During the three day period between 00.01 h on 31 December and 23.59 h on 2 January, 1151 new patients presented to the A&E department and of these half arrived in the first 24 hours. Thirty six patients required emergency resuscitation and eight died in the department during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: The absolute number of patients presenting during the study period greatly exceeded most of the "major disasters" in contemporary UK experience. No deaths were directly attributable to the event, but the spectrum of patient pathologies, their severity and presentation is analogous to several recent major incidents. It is doubtful whether the Hogmanay celebrations are safe.
    BibTeX:
    @article{O'Donnell1998,
      author = {O'Donnell, J J and Gleeson, A P and Smith, H},
      title = {Edinburgh's Hogmanay celebrations: beyond a major disaster.},
      journal = {Journal of Accident & Emergency Medicine},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {15},
      number = {4},
      pages = {272--273},
      note = {PMID: 9681315 PMCID: 1343144},
      url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1343144/pdf/jaccidem00025-0062.pdf}
    }
    					
    ACEP1996 Oster, N. The Papal Visit to New York City: A Mass Gathering Mass Casualty Incident 1996 website  misc 2011.06.27
    BibTeX:
    @misc{ACEP1996,
      author = {Neil Oster},
      title = {The Papal Visit to New York City: A Mass Gathering Mass Casualty Incident},
      year = {1996},
      url = {http://www.acep.org/content.aspx?id=43026}
    }
    					
    Pecqueux-Rebora2006 Pecqueux-Rebora, V. Medicalisation des rassemblements de foule : trois annees d'experience a Damblain (Vosges) 2006 School: Universlte Henri Poincare, Nancy 1   mastersthesis 2012.06.11
    BibTeX:
    @mastersthesis{Pecqueux-Rebora2006,
      author = {Virginie Pecqueux-Rebora},
      title = {Medicalisation des rassemblements de foule : trois annees d'experience a Damblain (Vosges)},
      school = {Universlte Henri Poincare, Nancy 1},
      year = {2006},
      url = {http://www.scd.uhp-nancy.fr/docnum/SCDMED_T_2006_PECQUEUX_REBORA_VIRGINIE.pdf}
    }
    					
    PELLISSIER-TANON2010 PELLISSIER-TANON, A. Connaître ou punir ? Traiter les erreurs dans les organisations 2010   unpublished 2012.03.23
    Abstract: C’est sous ce titre que Christian Morel, sociologue et DRH, a publié dans Le Débat, en
    novembre-décembre 20091, une analyse approfondie des effets pervers des punitions dont
    nous avons le réflexe en réaction à un accident et à un dommage. Il suggère, au contraire,
    d’assurer au « fautifs » l’immunité à condition qu’ils fassent toute la lumière sur l’affaire. On
    pourra ainsi capitaliser leur expérience et éviter à l’avenir de nouveaux malheurs.
    Face à l’incertitude et à la complexité, c’est par erreur le plus souvent, non par faute
    volontaire, que l’accident survient et que des dommages portent l’affaire en lumière.
    L’exemple des salles d’opérations est parlant : quel chirurgien chercherait à perdre sa
    réputation ? L’exemple des accidents d’aviation l’est plus encore : quel pilote mettrait
    volontairement sa vie en danger ? Christian Morel l’avait déjà mis en évidence dans un livre
    portant sur Les Décisions absurdes2 et souligné même que l’erreur ne résulte pas toujours
    d’un dysfonctionnement du « facteur humain » mais très souvent d’un usage intelligent des
    informations disponibles. Dans cet article, il prolonge son analyse et tire les conséquences sur
    la bonne façon d’éviter accident et dommage.
    BibTeX:
    @unpublished{PELLISSIER-TANON2010,
      author = {Arnaud PELLISSIER-TANON},
      title = {Connaître ou punir ? Traiter les erreurs dans les organisations},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://ethicpedia.org/spip.php?article73}
    }
    					
    Piat2010 Piat, S.C.; Minniti, D.; Traversi, D.; Gianino, M.M.; Massazza, G. & Siliquini, R. Torino 2006 Winter Olympic Games: Highlight on Health Services Organization 2010 The Journal of Emergency Medicine
    Vol. 39 (4) , pp. 454-461  
    article 1a
    Abstract: Abstract
    Introduction: In the summer of 2009, British Columbia hosted the World Police and Fire
    Games (WPFG). The event brought together 10,599 athletes from 55 countries. In this
    descriptive, Canadian study, the composition of the medical team is analyzed, the unique
    challenges faced are discussed, and an analysis of the illness and injury rates is presented.
    This event occurred during a labor dispute affecting the sole provider of emergency ambulance
    service in the jurisdiction, which necessitated additional planning and resource allocation.
    As such, the context of this event as it relates to the literature on mass gathering
    medicine is discussed with a focus on how large-scale public events can impact emergency
    services for the community.
    Methods: This is a case report study.
    Results: There were 1,462 patient encounters. The majority involved musculo-skeletal
    injuries (53.8%). The patient presentation rate (PPR) was 109.40/1,000. The medical
    transfer rate (MTR) was 2.32/1,000. The ambulance transfer rate (ATR) for the 2009
    WPFG was 0.52/1,000. In total, 31 patients were transported to the hospital, the majority
    for diagnostic evaluation. Only seven calls were placed to 9-1-1 for emergency ambulance
    service.
    Conclusions: The 2009 WPFG was a mass-gathering sporting event that presented specific
    challenges in relation to medical support. Despite relatively high patient presentation
    rates, the widely spread geography of the event, and a reduced ability to depend on
    9-1-1 emergency medical services, there was minimal impact on local emergency services.
    Adequate planning and preparation is crucial for events that have the potential to degrade
    existing public resources and access to emergency health services for participants and the
    public at large.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Piat2010,
      author = {Piat, Simone Chiadò and Minniti, Davide and Traversi, Deborah and Gianino, Maria Michela and Massazza, Giuseppe and Siliquini, Roberta},
      title = {Torino 2006 Winter Olympic Games: Highlight on Health Services Organization},
      journal = {The Journal of Emergency Medicine},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {39},
      number = {4},
      pages = {454--461},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0736467909007537},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/16/j.jemermed.2009.08.028}
    }
    					
    Platz2011 Platz, B.R. Developing a Mass Gathering Event Planning Process for the Iowa City Fire Department 2011   techreport 2012.02.29
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Platz2011,
      author = {Brian R. Platz},
      title = {Developing a Mass Gathering Event Planning Process for the Iowa City Fire Department},
      year = {2011},
      url = {http://www.usfa.dhs.gov/pdf/efop/efo45489.pdf}
    }
    					
    Ranse2010 Ranse, J. & Zeitz, K. Chain of Survival at Mass Gatherings: A Case Series of Resuscitation Events 2010 Prehosp Disaster Med
    Vol. 25 , pp. 457-463  
    article 2011.11.13
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ranse2010,
      author = {Jamie Ranse and Kathryn Zeitz},
      title = {Chain of Survival at Mass Gatherings: A Case Series of Resuscitation Events},
      journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {25},
      pages = {457-463},
      url = {http://pdm.medicine.wisc.edu}
    }
    					
    Rasschaert2011 Rasschaert, F. Analyse van de gebeurtenissen naar aanleiding van de uitzending van de voetbalwedstrijd België-Turkije op een groot scherm op de Kouter op 03-06-2011 en aanbevelingen 2011   electronic 2013.05.25
    BibTeX:
    @electronic{Rasschaert2011,
      author = {Filip Rasschaert},
      title = {Analyse van de gebeurtenissen naar aanleiding van de uitzending van de voetbalwedstrijd België-Turkije op een groot scherm op de Kouter op 03-06-2011 en aanbevelingen},
      year = {2011},
      url = {http://www.danieltermont.be/rapport%20BelTur.pdf}
    }
    					
    Reade2007 Reade, J.J. Modelling and forecasting football attendances 2007 Oxonomics
    Vol. 2 , pp. 27-32  
    article 2011.07.07
    Abstract: Estimating demand functions for football match attendance is increasingly popular, with focus usually on top divisions of national leagues and on groups of teams. Here, demand for one lower division team, Oldham Athletic, is analyzed. General-to-specific model selection is employed to find a model to explain attendances, which is then used to forecast attendances. The model explains and predicts attendances well, and additionally designed forecast combinations provide competitive forecasts due to the possibility of structural breaks.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Reade2007,
      author = {J. James Reade},
      title = {Modelling and forecasting football attendances},
      journal = {Oxonomics},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {2},
      pages = {27-32},
      url = {http://www.jamesreade.co.uk/J_James_Reades_Website/Work_files/OxonomicsPaper.pdf}
    }
    					
    Revello2011 Revello, A. & Marzio, A. Mass-Gathering Event Risk Scoring Model: A Score to Predict Risk Level and Medical Usage Rate during Metropolitan Mass Gatherings 2011 17th World Congress for Disaster and Emergency Medicine -- Prehospital and Disaster Medicine , pp. s76   inproceedings 2011.09.08
    Abstract: Background
    During the planning phase of a mass gathering, it is important to organize the most suitable healthcare responses to assure primary, emergency, and major accident care, with the best balance between available resources and costs.

    Objectives
    This study tries to develop a Mass-Gathering Event Risk Scoring Model (MGE-RS) to predict Medical Usage Rate (MUR) that can assist emergency medical services providers in planning for mass gatherings across a variety of events and venue types in a metropolitan area.

    Methods and Results This study includes 48 mass gatherings in Rome (35 mass gatherings; 2005–2006) and Milan (13 mass gatherings; 2009–2010). All 35 mass gatherings in Rome had > 100,000 attendees (100,000 to 5,000,000), while the 13 mass gatherings in Milan had a median of 100,000 attendees (50,000–200,000). The median patient presentation rate (PPR) was 0.5 patients/1,000 persons: this rate is close to PPRs for mass gatherings reported in the literature (0.5–2.0 patients/1,000 attendees). For each event, the predicted MURs, calculated using the Arbon Model and the MGE-RS Model, were compared with the actual MUR. The MGE-RS scoring model uses a formula that assigns points based on known information (type of event, place, duration, crowd, health system facilities) to predict the risk. The MGE-RS score ranged from 16 to 77. There are five risk levels, each one corresponds to an expected MUR from 1.5 to 45. In the events studied, the predicted MUR calculated with the Arbon model corresponded in 60% of cases (20% under/overestimation); the MGE-RS was in range in 88% of cases (0% underestimated; 12% overestimation).

    Conclusions
    The MGE-RS seems to be a provider-friendly tool to be used in planning phase, and is able to give an acceptable estimation of the risk level and expected MUR for a mass gathering, without underestimating the estimated MUR during the planning phase.

    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Revello2011,
      author = {A. Revello and A. Marzio},
      title = {Mass-Gathering Event Risk Scoring Model: A Score to Predict Risk Level and Medical Usage Rate during Metropolitan Mass Gatherings},
      booktitle = {17th World Congress for Disaster and Emergency Medicine -- Prehospital and Disaster Medicine},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {s76},
      url = {http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8276048#}
    }
    					
    Richmond2011 Richmond, C.L. Special Events Medical Services 2011   book 2012.03.20
    BibTeX:
    @book{Richmond2011,
      author = {Clay L. Richmond},
      title = {Special Events Medical Services},
      publisher = {American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons},
      year = {2011},
      url = {http://books.google.be/books?id=e6rG3EHhcK4C}
    }
    					
    Roberts2010 Roberts, W. .O. Determining a "do not start" temperature for a marathon on the basis of adverse outcomes 2010 Med. Sci. Sports Exerc
    Vol. 42 , pp. 226-232  
    article 2012.05.21
    Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Marathon races faced with unexpectedly hot conditions must make a decision to start or not to start. The current race cancellation parameters may not reflect the safety profile of an individual race, and a universal temperature may not work an individual race.

    METHODS: A retrospective review of the number of starters, finishers, and finish line medical encounters was used to calculate the rate of "unsuccessful" marathon starters from race records, where unsuccessful is defined as medical encounters seen for any reason in the finish medical area plus marathon starters who did not finish. Unsuccessful marathon starters were plotted against the race start wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT), and the WBGT level at which a mass casualty incident (MCI) occurred was used to calculate a "do not start" WBGT.

    RESULTS: A start WBGT of >21 degrees C resulted in MCI or midrace cancellation in several races. Twin Cities Marathon data show a rapid increase in the rate of unsuccessful marathoner starters above a start WBGT of 13 degrees C. The event experienced an area-wide MCI at a start WBGT of 22 degrees C with an unsuccessful starter rate of 160 per 1000 finishers.

    CONCLUSIONS: Marathons in northern latitudes (>40 degrees) held in "unexpectedly" hot conditions when the participants are not acclimatized and the start WBGT is >21 degrees C often end in either race cancellation or an MCI. It would seem prudent not to start these races in similar conditions. The rate of unsuccessful marathon starters per 1000 marathon finishers plotted against start WBGT generates a curve that can be used to estimate a do not start level. The do not start WBGT for Twin Cities Marathon is 20.5 degrees C on the basis of this model.

    BibTeX:
    @article{Roberts2010,
      author = {W .O. Roberts},
      title = {Determining a "do not start" temperature for a marathon on the basis of adverse outcomes},
      journal = {Med. Sci. Sports Exerc},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {42},
      pages = {226-232}
    }
    					
    Roberts2007 Roberts, W.O. Heat and Cold - What does the Environment do to Marathon Injury? 2007
    Vol. 37 (4-5) Sports Med , pp. 40-403  
    inproceedings 2012.06.08
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Roberts2007,
      author = {William O. Roberts},
      title = {Heat and Cold -- What does the Environment do to Marathon Injury?},
      booktitle = {Sports Med},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {37},
      number = {4-5},
      pages = {40-403},
      url = {http://adisonline.com/sportsmedicine/Abstract/2007/37040/Heat_and_Cold__What_does_the_Environment_do_to.33.aspx}
    }
    					
    Roberts2000 Roberts, W.O. A 12-yr profile of medical injury and illness for the Twin Cities Marathon 2000 Med. Sci. Sports Exerc
    Vol. 32 , pp. 1549-1555  
    article 2012.05.21
    BibTeX:
    @article{Roberts2000,
      author = {W. O. Roberts},
      title = {A 12-yr profile of medical injury and illness for the Twin Cities Marathon},
      journal = {Med. Sci. Sports Exerc},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {32},
      pages = {1549-1555}
    }
    					
    JMRousseau2008 Rousseau, J.; LIBERT, N.; DUBOST, C.; PELLETIER, C.; BATJOM, E. & BONNEFOY, S. Coup de chaleur d’exercice : comment refroidir ? 2008 Réanoxyno
    Vol. 24 , pp. 21-24  
    article 2012.05.15
    BibTeX:
    @article{JMRousseau2008,
      author = {JM Rousseau and N LIBERT and C DUBOST and C PELLETIER and E BATJOM and S BONNEFOY},
      title = {Coup de chaleur d’exercice : comment refroidir ?},
      journal = {Réanoxyno},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {24},
      pages = {21-24},
      url = {http://www.carum.org/reanoxyo_24.pdf}
    }
    					
    Saby2008 Saby, C.; ABRIAT, A.; BROSSET, C.; KOZAC-RIBBENS, G.; BENDAHAN, D.; POULIQUEN, G.; BRANGER, D.F. & PETROGNANI, R. Coup de chaleur d’exercice : pourquoi explorer ?. 2008 Réanoxyno
    Vol. 24 , pp. 25-27  
    article 2012.05.15
    BibTeX:
    @article{Saby2008,
      author = {C Saby and A ABRIAT and C BROSSET and G KOZAC-RIBBENS and D BENDAHAN and G POULIQUEN and D FIGARELLA BRANGER and R PETROGNANI},
      title = {Coup de chaleur d’exercice : pourquoi explorer ?.},
      journal = {Réanoxyno},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {24},
      pages = {25-27},
      url = {http://www.carum.org/reanoxyo_24.pdf}
    }
    					
    Salhanick2003 Salhanick, S.D.; Sheahan, W. & Bazarian, J.J. Use and analysis of field triage criteria for mass gatherings 2003 Prehosp Disaster Med
    Vol. 18 , pp. 347-352  
    article 2011.09.04
    Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Mass gatherings may result in an acute increase in the number of people seeking medical care potentially causing undue stress to local emergency medical services (EMS) and hospitals. Often, temporary medical facilities are established within the mass gathering venue. Emergency Medical Services providers encountering patients in the field should be equipped with effective protocols to determine transport destination (venue facility vs. hospital).

    HYPOTHESIS: Paramedics are capable of appropriately using triage criteria written specifically for a particular mass gathering. The use of triage criteria, when applied correctly, decreases over-triage to the venue facility and undertriage to the hospital.

    METHODS: Paramedics triaged patients at a mass gathering to a temporary venue facility or to a single emergency department using criteria specific for the event. Cases were reviewed to determine if the patients transported went to an appropriate facility and if the triage criteria were applied appropriately. Results: Transport destination was consistent with that dictated by the criteria for 78% of cases. Analysis of these cases shows that the criteria had a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI = 58-100%) and a specificity of 90% (95% CI = 73-98%) for predicting which patients needed hospital services and which could be cared for safely in the temporary clinic setting.

    CONCLUSIONS: Triage by paramedics at the point of patient contact may reduce transporting of patients to hospitals unnecessarily. Patients in need of hospital services were identified. Point-of-contact triage should be applied in mass gatherings.

    BibTeX:
    @article{Salhanick2003,
      author = {S. D. Salhanick and W. Sheahan and J. J. Bazarian},
      title = {Use and analysis of field triage criteria for mass gatherings},
      journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {18},
      pages = {347-352},
      url = {http://pdm.medicine.wisc.edu/Volume_18/issue_4/table_of_contents.html}
    }
    					
    Sanders1986 Sanders, A.B.; Criss, E.; Steckl, P.; Meislin, H.W.; Raife, J. & Allen, D. An analysis of medical care at mass gatherings 1986 Ann Emerg Med.
    Vol. 15 , pp. 515-519  
    article 2012.04.13
    Abstract: Emergency medical care at public gatherings is haphazard at best and dangerous at worst. The Arizona chapter of the American College of Emergency Physicians, through the Chapter Grant Program, studied the level of medical care provided at public gatherings in order to develop guidelines for emergency medical care at mass gatherings. The study consisted of a survey of medical care at 15 facilities providing events for the public. The results of these surveys showed a wide variation of medical care provided at mass events. Of the 490 medical encounters reviewed, 52.2% were within the realm of care of paramedics, but not basic emergency medical technicians. The most common injuries/illnesses were lacerations, sprains, headaches, and syncope. Problems noted included poor documentation and record keeping of medical encounters, a tendency for prehospital care personnel to make medical evaluations without transport or medical control, and variability of care provided. Based on this survey and a literature review, guidelines for medical care at mass gatherings in Arizona were determined using an objective-oriented approach. It is our position that event organizers have the responsibility of ensuring the availability of emergency medical services for spectators and participants. We recommend that state chapters or National ACEP evaluate the role of emergency medical care at mass gatherings.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sanders1986,
      author = {Arthur B Sanders and Elizabeth Criss and Peter Steckl and Harvey W Meislin and John Raife and Douglas Allen},
      title = {An analysis of medical care at mass gatherings},
      journal = {Ann Emerg Med.},
      year = {1986},
      volume = {15},
      pages = {515-519},
      url = {http://www.annemergmed.com/article/S0196-0644(86)80984-2/abstract}
    }
    					
    TSR1985 Schauli, C. Télévision Suisse Romande Le drame du Heysel 1985 reportage télévisé -- émission temps présent  electronic 2011.07.17
    Abstract: Le mercredi 29 mai 1985, les équipes de Liverpool et de la Juventus de Turin doivent s'affronter à Bruxelles en finale de la Coupe d'Europe. Par hasard, une équipe de la TSR est sur place pour un tournage sur les supporters de football. Elle se trouve sans le savoir encore au milieu de ce qui sera un des plus terrible drame du football européen et aboutira à l'exclusion pour de nombreuses années de toutes compétitions européennes du club de Liverpool.

    Ces images firent le tour du monde après le drame.

    Ce document a été diffusé à l'antenne sous le titre original : Les fous du football

    BibTeX:
    @electronic{TSR1985,
      author = {Claude Schauli},
      title = {Le drame du Heysel},
      year = {1985},
      url = {http://archives.tsr.ch/player/catastrophe-heysel}
    }
    					
    HEYSEL_RTS Schauli, C. & Demont, P. Radio Télévision Suisse Romande Le drame du Heysel 1985 Film  electronic 2012.03.23
    Abstract: Le mercredi 29 mai 1985, les équipes de Liverpool et de la Juventus de Turin doivent s'affronter à Bruxelles en finale de la Coupe d'Europe. Par hasard, une équipe de la TSR est sur place pour un tournage sur les supporters de football. Elle se trouve sans le savoir encore au milieu de ce qui sera un des plus terrible drame du football européen et aboutira à l'exclusion pour de nombreuses années de toutes compétitions européennes du club de Liverpool.

    Ces images firent le tour du monde après le drame.

    Ce document a été diffusé à l'antenne sous le titre original : Les fous du football

    BibTeX:
    @electronic{HEYSEL_RTS,
      author = {Claude Schauli and Pierre Demont},
      title = {Le drame du Heysel},
      year = {1985},
      note = {15 min 04 sec},
      url = {http://www.rts.ch/archives/tv/information/temps-present/3438604-le-drame-du-heysel.html}
    }
    					
    Schlicht1972 Schlicht, J.; Mitcheson, M. & Henry, M. Medical aspects of large outdoor festivals 1972 The Lancet
    Vol. 299 (7757) , pp. 948 - 952  
    article 1a
    Abstract: Four festivals of pop music have been described, and some problems of special interest and importance were emphasised. The #bad##trip# after lysergide usage is one medical problem at such festivals, and it is one with which British doctors have relatively little experience. The value of volunteers and their organisations cannot be emphasised too much, and their presence should always be an integral part of such occasions. The case-load experienced at these festivals makes it clear that such gatherings need general medical cover, and there should be additional facilities to deal with injuries due to violence or camping accidents.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Schlicht1972,
      author = {Justin Schlicht and Martin Mitcheson and Mel Henry},
      title = {Medical aspects of large outdoor festivals},
      journal = {The Lancet},
      year = {1972},
      volume = {299},
      number = {7757},
      pages = {948 - 952},
      note = {Originally published as Volume 1, Issue 7757},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673672915085},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(72)91508-5}
    }
    					
    Selig2011 Selig, B.; Hastings, M.; Cannon, C.; Allin, D.; Klaus, S. & Diaz, F.J. Effect Of Weather On Medical Patient Volume At Kansas Speedway Mass Gatherings 2011 J Emerg Nurs   article 2012.08.20
    Abstract: Provision for the safety and health care of persons
    attending mass-gathering events presents unique challenges to
    organizers. This study was designed to determine the factors that
    contribute to patients seeking medical care during these events.
    Methods: We performed a retrospective review of patient care
    records for visits that occurred during race weekends at the
    Kansas Speedway from April 2007 to October 2010. Data were
    collected regarding the overall gathering size of each event to
    calculate the number of patient encounters per 10,000 attendees.
    Patients’ final disposition was determined to calculate the
    transfer-to-hospital rate per 10,000 attendees. Weather data,
    including temperature, humidity, and precipitation, were
    documented for each event. Negative binomial regression was
    used to test the relationship between weather factors and the
    rate of patient encounters.
    Results: Twenty-two event days over 6 race weekends were
    evaluated, with a total of 1305 patients (58% male; mean age:
    37 years), a mean patient encounter rate of 13 per 10,000
    attendees, and a mean transfer-to-hospital rate of 0.24 per
    10,000 attendees. Our regression model demonstrated that each
    0.55°C (1°F) increase in daily mean temperature was associated
    with a 4% increase in the rate of total complaints (P = .03)
    and a 6% increase in major trauma presentations (P = .019).
    Major trauma events were 2.4 times more frequent at ambient
    temperatures >17.2°C (63°F) (P = .03). Each inch of precipitation
    was associated with a 61% decrease in total patient volume
    (P = .05).
    Conclusion: Weather factors significantly and predictably
    affect the use of medical services at the Kansas Speedway.
    Such data regarding mass-gathering events can be used for
    resource planning.
    Key words: Mass gathering; Speedway; Weather; Volume;
    Events; Predicting
    BibTeX:
    @article{Selig2011,
      author = {Brian Selig and Michael Hastings and Chad Cannon and Dennis Allin and Susan Klaus and Francisco J. Diaz},
      title = {Effect Of Weather On Medical Patient Volume At Kansas Speedway Mass Gatherings},
      journal = {J Emerg Nurs},
      year = {2011},
      url = {http://www.jenonline.org/article/S0099-1767%2811%2900542-3/abstract}
    }
    					
    Serwylo2011 Serwylo, P.; Arbon, P. & Rumantir, G. Predicting Patient Presentation Rates at Mass Gatherings using Machine Learning 2011 Transport (May) Proceedings of the 8th International ISCRAM Conference   inproceedings 1a
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Serwylo2011,
      author = {Serwylo, Peter and Arbon, Paul and Rumantir, Grace},
      title = {Predicting Patient Presentation Rates at Mass Gatherings using Machine Learning},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 8th International ISCRAM Conference},
      journal = {Transport},
      year = {2011},
      number = {May}
    }
    					
    Setzler2009 Setzler, H.; Saydam, C. & Park, S. EMS call volume predictions: A comparative study 2009 Computers & Operations Research
    Vol. 36 (6) , pp. 1843-1851  
    article 1a
    Abstract: The demand for ambulances fluctuates throughout the week, depending on the day of week and, even more so, the time of day. Many emergency medical services (EMS) managers adjust the number of ambulances deployed using various demand pattern analyses, including moving averages. Simply forecasting the number of expected calls for an entire region does not allow managers to deploy their often-limited resources effectively so that emergency response time is minimized. In order for deployment plans, or even sophisticated optimization models, to be more effective, emergency call forecasts must be accurate for both time and location. For purposes of this study, we consider forecasts accurate for a region if they are within ±0.25 of actual calls for hourly forecasts and within ±0.5 of actual calls for 3-h forecasts. An artificial neural network (ANN) designed to forecast demand volume of specific areas during different times of the day is compared to current industry practice for accuracy of prediction. Our study shows that both methods produce accurate forecasts for certain levels of time and space granularity. Results also suggest that the high level of space and time details in forecasts desired by EMS managers may be difficult to obtain regardless of which method is used.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Setzler2009,
      author = {Hubert Setzler and Cem Saydam and Sungjune Park},
      title = {EMS call volume predictions: A comparative study},
      journal = {Computers & Operations Research},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {36},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1843--1851},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VC5-4SM1THY-1/2/f38e1b44f3a3660745e5f505935250e4},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cor.2008.05.010}
    }
    					
    Shafia2008 Shafia, S.; Booy, R.; Haworth, E.; Rashid, H. & Memish, Z.A. Hajj: Health lessons for mass gatherings 2008 Journal of Infection and Public Health
    Vol. 1 , pp. 27-32  
    article 2013.05.25
    BibTeX:
    @article{Shafia2008,
      author = {Shuja Shafia and Robert Booy and Elizabeth Haworth and Harunor Rashid and Ziad A. Memish},
      title = {Hajj: Health lessons for mass gatherings},
      journal = {Journal of Infection and Public Health},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {1},
      pages = {27-32},
      url = {Hajj: Health lessons for mass gatherings}
    }
    					
    Skjeie2008 Skjeie, H.; Nygaard, S.; Li, H.S.; Gardasevic, B.; Fetveit, A. & Brekke, M. [Medical emergency care and patient contact at the Quart Rock Festival in Norway] 2008 Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Række
    Vol. 128 (13) , pp. 1508-1511  
    article 2011_a
    Abstract: BACKGROUND The annual Quart Rock Festival (1991-2007) was the largest rock festival in Norway. During festivals in 2004-06, a daily average of 3 000 personnel, guests and artists, and 10,000 visitors, 13,000 people, were present daily. The festival had a medical care organization recruited from primary care personnel. The team consisted of one general practitioner, one physiotherapist, two nurses from the municipality outpatient service, and lay personnel trained in first aid. MATERIAL AND METHODS We recorded all patient contacts at the festival in 2004, 2005, and 2006 in order to describe injuries requiring medical attention and the need for referrals. RESULTS The total number of festival participants, including personnel, was 208,000 during the registration period. Of totally 1,349 patient contacts, 254 required consultation with a nurse and 191 with the attending physician. There were no deaths, cardiac or respiratory arrests or serious penetrating trauma. 33 contacts were related to intoxication: 24 due to alcohol, five to illegal drugs and four to unknown substances. Violence-related injuries were the cause of 18 contacts, of which none were serious. 49 patients were referred for follow-up, mostly to the municipality outpatient service or their own physician, and five patients were admitted to hospital. The transport-to-hospital-ratio was 0.24 per 10,000 participants. INTERPRETATION The results are similar to those in studies of rock festivals in other countries. The need for referrals was equal to or lower than in other studies. This indicates that the primary care-based medical organization at the Quart Festival was adequate.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Skjeie2008,
      author = {Skjeie, Holgeir and Nygaard, Siv and Li, Henrik Stenwig and Gardasevic, Bozidar and Fetveit, Arne and Brekke, Mette},
      title = {[Medical emergency care and patient contact at the Quart Rock Festival in Norway]},
      journal = {Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Række},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {128},
      number = {13},
      pages = {1508--1511},
      note = {PMID: 18587456},
      url = {http://tidsskriftet.no/article/16190/en_GB/}
    }
    					
    Smith0000 Smith, W. Mass Gatherings Medicine slideshow  misc 2011.06.23
    BibTeX:
    @misc{Smith0000,
      author = {Wayne Smith},
      title = {Mass Gatherings Medicine}
    }
    					
    Smith2010 Smith, W.P.; Wessels, V.; Naicker, D.; Leuenberger, E.; Fuhri, P. & Wallis, L.A. Development of a mass-gathering medical resource matrix for a developing world scenario 2010 Prehosp Disaster Med
    Vol. 25 (6) , pp. 547-552  
    article 1a
    Abstract: Mass gatherings have a higher patient presentation rate than is found within the general population. Despite this fact, many mass gatherings are occurring without suitable medical coverage. South Africa has had no standard approach or model to determine the number of medical personnel needed to deploy to an event. The awarding of the FIFA (Federation International de Football Association) 2010 World Cup to South Africa has provided the impetus for the development of such a model. The model presented in this paper is based on existing recommendations that originate from the United Kingdom. This paper outlines the modifications that have been made to this model to ensure that adequate medical resources still are provided, albeit in a developing country where medical resources may not be as plentiful.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Smith2010,
      author = {Smith, Wayne P and Wessels, Vernon and Naicker, Diane and Leuenberger, Elizabeth and Fuhri, Peter and Wallis, Lee A},
      title = {Development of a mass-gathering medical resource matrix for a developing world scenario},
      journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {25},
      number = {6},
      pages = {547--552},
      note = {PMID: 21181690},
      url = {http://pdm.medicine.wisc.edu/Volume_25/issue_6/smith.pdf}
    }
    					
    Soomaroo2012 Soomaroo, L. & Murray, V. Disasters at Mass Gatherings: Lessons from History 2012 PLoS Currents Disasters   article 2012.03.11
    BibTeX:
    @article{Soomaroo2012,
      author = {Lee Soomaroo and Virginia Murray},
      title = {Disasters at Mass Gatherings: Lessons from History},
      journal = {PLoS Currents Disasters},
      year = {2012},
      note = {2012 Jan 31 [last modified: 2012 Mar 13]},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/4f70cf55a7dbc}
    }
    					
    Soomaroo2012a Soomaroo, L. & Murray, V. Weather and Environmental Hazards at Mass Gatherings 2012 PLOS Currents Disasters   article 2012.08.16
    BibTeX:
    @article{Soomaroo2012a,
      author = {L. Soomaroo and V. Murray},
      title = {Weather and Environmental Hazards at Mass Gatherings},
      journal = {PLOS Currents Disasters},
      year = {2012},
      url = {http://currents.plos.org/disasters/article/weather-and-environmental-hazards-at-mass-gatherings/},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/4fca9ee30afc4}
    }
    					
    Spaite1988 Spaite, D.W.; Criss, E.A.; Valenzuela, T.D.; Meislin, H.W.; Smith, R. & Nelson, A. A new model for providing prehospital medical care in large stadiums 1988 Ann Emerg Med
    Vol. 17 (8) , pp. 825-828  
    article 1a
    Abstract: To determine proper priorities for the provision of health care in large stadiums, we studied the medical incident patterns occurring in a major college facility and combined this with previously reported information from four other large stadiums. Medical incidents were an uncommon occurrence (1.20 to 5.23 per 10,000 people) with true medical emergencies being even more unusual (0.09 to 0.31 per 10,000 people). Cardiac arrest was rare (0.01 to 0.04 events per 10,000 people). However, the rates of successful resuscitation in three studies were 85% or higher. The previous studies were descriptive in nature and failed to provide specific recommendations for medical aid system configuration or response times. A model is proposed to provide rapid response of advanced life support care to victims of cardiac arrest. We believe that the use of this model in large stadiums throughout the United States could save as many as 100 lives during each football season.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Spaite1988,
      author = {Spaite, Daniel W and Criss, Elizabeth A and Valenzuela, Terence D and Meislin, Harvey W and Smith, Roger and Nelson, Allie},
      title = {A new model for providing prehospital medical care in large stadiums},
      journal = {Ann Emerg Med},
      year = {1988},
      volume = {17},
      number = {8},
      pages = {825--828},
      url = {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0196064488805638?showall=true}
    }
    					
    Steffen2012 Steffen, R.; Bouchama, A.; Johansson, A.; Dvorak, J.; Isla, N.; Smallwood, C. & Memish, Z.A. Non-communicable health risks during mass gatherings 2012 Lancet Infect Dis
    Vol. 12 , pp. 142-149  
    article 2012.03.30
    BibTeX:
    @article{Steffen2012,
      author = {Robert Steffen and Abderrezak Bouchama and Anders Johansson and Jiri Dvorak and Nicolas Isla and Catherine Smallwood and Ziad A Memish},
      title = {Non-communicable health risks during mass gatherings},
      journal = {Lancet Infect Dis},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {12},
      pages = {142-149},
      url = {http://press.thelancet.com/mg3.pdf},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(11)70293-6}
    }
    					
    Sun2013 Sun, X.; Keim, M.; He, Y.; Mahany, M. & Yuan, Z. Reducing the risk of public health emergencies for the world’s largest mass gathering 2013 Disaster Health
    Vol. 1 , pp. 1-9  
    article 2013.05.25
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sun2013,
      author = {Xiaodong Sun and Mark Keim and Yongchao He and Mollie Mahany and Zheng’an Yuan},
      title = {Reducing the risk of public health emergencies for the world’s largest mass gathering},
      journal = {Disaster Health},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {1},
      pages = {1-9},
      url = {http://www.landesbioscience.com/journals/disasterhealth/article/22537/}
    }
    					
    Takahashi2007 Takahashi, A.; Ishii, N.; Kawashima, T. & Nakao, H. Assessment of Medical Response Capacity in the time of Disaster: the Estimated Formula of Hospital Treatment Capacity (HTC), the Maximum Receivable Number of Patients in Hospital 2007 Kobe J. Med. Sci.
    Vol. 53 (5) , pp. 189-198  
    article 2012.02.29
    BibTeX:
    @article{Takahashi2007,
      author = {Akira Takahashi and Noboru Ishii and Takahisa Kawashima and Hiroyuki Nakao},
      title = {Assessment of Medical Response Capacity in the time of Disaster: the Estimated Formula of Hospital Treatment Capacity (HTC), the Maximum Receivable Number of Patients in Hospital},
      journal = {Kobe J. Med. Sci.},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {53},
      number = {5},
      pages = {189-198}
    }
    					
    Thompson1991 Thompson, J.M.; Savoia, G.; Powell, G.; Challis, E.B. & Law, P. Level of Medical Care Required for Mass Gatherings: The XV Winter Olympic Games in Calgary, Canada 1991 Ann Emerg Med , pp. 385   article 2011.08.15
    BibTeX:
    @article{Thompson1991,
      author = {James M Thompson and Gino Savoia and Gregory Powell and E B Challis and Patricia Law and},
      title = {Level of Medical Care Required for Mass Gatherings: The XV Winter Olympic Games in Calgary, Canada},
      journal = {Ann Emerg Med},
      year = {1991},
      pages = {385},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0196064405816609}
    }
    					
    Toresdahl2012 Toresdahl, B.; Courson, R.; Börjesson, M.; Sharma, S. & Drezner, J. Emergency cardiac care in the athletic setting: from schools to the Olympics 2012 Br J Sports Med
    Vol. 46(Suppi I) , pp. :i85–i89  
    article 2013.01.24
    BibTeX:
    @article{Toresdahl2012,
      author = {Brett Toresdahl and Ron Courson and Mats Börjesson and Sanjay Sharma and Jonathan Drezner},
      title = {Emergency cardiac care in the athletic setting: from schools to the Olympics},
      journal = {Br J Sports Med},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {46(Suppi I)},
      pages = {:i85–i89},
      url = {http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/46/Suppl_1/i85.full.pdf+html},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2012-091447}
    }
    					
    Townes2005 Townes, D.A. Wilderness medicine: strategies for provision of medical support for adventure racing 2005 Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.Z.)
    Vol. 35 (7) , pp. 557-564  
    article 1a
    Abstract: In adventure racing, or multisporting, athletes perform multiple disciplines over a course in rugged, often remote, wilderness terrain. Disciplines may include, but are not limited to, hiking, trail running, mountain biking, caving, technical climbing, fixed-line mountaineering, flat- and white-water boating, and orienteering. While sprint races may be as short as 6 hours, expedition-length adventure races last a minimum of 36 hours up to 10 days or more and may cover hundreds of kilometres. Over the past decade, adventure racing has grown in popularity throughout the world with increasing numbers of events and participants each year. The provision of on-site medical care during these events is essential to ensure the health and safety of the athletes and thus the success of the sport. At present, there are no formal guidelines and a relatively small amount of literature to assist in the development of medical support plans for these events. This article provides an introduction to the provision of medical support for adventure races. Since a wide variety of illness and injury occur during these events, the medical support plan should provide for proper personnel, equipment and supplies to provide care for a wide range of illness and injury. Foot-related problems are the most common reasons for athletes to require medical attention during these events. This article also highlights some of the controversies involved in the provision of medical support for these events. Suggested penalties for acceptance of medical care during the event and strategies for removal of an athlete from the event for medical reasons are offered. In addition, some of the challenges involved in the provision of medical support, including communication, logistics and liability are discussed. This information should prove useful for medical directors of future, similar events. Because of their extreme nature, expedition-length adventure races represent a new and unique area of wilderness and event medicine.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Townes2005,
      author = {Townes, David A},
      title = {Wilderness medicine: strategies for provision of medical support for adventure racing},
      journal = {Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.Z.)},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {35},
      number = {7},
      pages = {557--564},
      note = {PMID: 16026169},
      url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16026169}
    }
    					
    Tsouros2007 Tsouros, A.D. & Efstathiou, P.A. Mass Gatherings and Public Health - The Experience of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games 2007   techreport 2011.06.21
    Abstract: Large-scale mass gatherings, such as the Olympic Games, represent significant challenges for the entire health sector of host countries. Emerging
    global public health threats of natural or deliberate nature increase considerably the health and safety vulnerability of mass gatherings. Major
    areas of public health responsibility include health care capacity and mass-casualty preparedness; disease surveillance and outbreak response;
    environmental health and food safety; public information and health promotion; public health preparedness and response to incidents potentially
    involving the deliberate use of explosives, biological and chemical agents or radionuclear material; and leadership, operations and unified
    command. This book comprehensively and systematically presents the experience of and lessons learned from the public health aspects of the
    preparations and conduct of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games. Documenting this experience can be a source of valuable information and
    knowledge for governments at all levels and communities in building their capacity for not only large-scale events but also preparing to deal with
    the avian influenza pandemic threat or other emergencies such as flooding and phenomena often associated with climate change.
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Tsouros2007,
      author = {Agis D. Tsouros and Panos A. Efstathiou},
      title = {Mass Gatherings and Public Health -- The Experience of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games},
      year = {2007},
      url = {http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/98415/E90712.pdf}
    }
    					
    Turris2012 Turris, S.A. & Lund, A. Triage During Mass Gatherings 2012 Prehosp Disaster Med
    Vol. 27 (6) , pp. 531-535  
    article 2013.01.24
    Abstract: Triage is a complex process and is one means for determining which patients most need access to limited resources. Triage has been studied extensively, particularly in relation to triage in overcrowded emergency departments, where individuals presenting for treatment often are competing for the available stretchers. Research also has been done in relation to the use of prehospital and field triage during mass-casualty incidents and disasters.

    In contrast, scant research has been done to develop and test an effective triage approach for use in mass-gathering and mass-participation events, although there is a growing body of knowledge regarding the health needs of persons attending large events. Existing triage and acuity scoring systems are suboptimal for this unique population, as these events can involve high patient presentation rates (PPR) and, occasionally, critically ill patients. Mass-gathering events are dangerous; a higher incidence of injury occurs than would be expected from general population statistics.

    The need for an effective triage and acuity scoring system for use during mass gatherings is clear, as these events not only create multiple patient encounters, but also have the potential to become mass-casualty incidents. Furthermore, triage during a large-scale disaster or mass-casualty incident requires that multiple, local agencies work together, necessitating a common language for triage and acuity scoring.

    In reviewing existing literature with regard to triage systems that might be employed for this population, it is noted that existing systems are biased toward traumatic injuries, usually ignoring mitigating factors such as alcohol and drug use and environmental exposures. Moreover, there is a substantial amount of over-triage that occurs with existing prehospital triage systems, which may lead to misallocation of limited resources. This manuscript presents a review of the available literature and proposes a triage system for use during mass gatherings that also may be used in the setting of mass-casualty incidents or disaster responses.

    BibTeX:
    @article{Turris2012,
      author = {Sheila A. Turris and Adam Lund},
      title = {Triage During Mass Gatherings},
      journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {27},
      number = {6},
      pages = {531-535},
      url = {http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8756107}
    }
    					
    Upton2004 Upton, M. Risk analysis for major concerts - The benefit of hindsight presented to cabinet Office Seminar Safety at mass Crowd Events (Jan 2004)  electronic 2011.08.15
    Abstract: This paper argues that a risk assessment relating to crowd safety at a contemporary concert that is based solely on quantitative measurements in fundamentally flawed. A common approach to risk assessment is reviewed and a need to adopt a four dimensional approach to risk identification is argued.
    BibTeX:
    @electronic{Upton2004,
      author = {Mick Upton},
      title = {Risk analysis for major concerts -- The benefit of hindsight},
      url = {http://www.safeconcerts.com/documents/riskassessment.pdf}
    }
    					
    WEBSITE002 Upton, M. blog  electronic 2011.08.15
    BibTeX:
    @electronic{WEBSITE002,
      author = {Mick Upton},
      url = {http://mickupton.wordpress.com/}
    }
    					
    Upton1995 Upton, M. Incident at Donington Monsters of Rock 1988 1995 Easingworld Seminar -- Mass Crowd Events   inproceedings 2011.09.04
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Upton1995,
      author = {Mick Upton},
      title = {Incident at Donington Monsters of Rock 1988},
      booktitle = {Easingworld Seminar -- Mass Crowd Events},
      year = {1995},
      url = {http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CBkQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.safeconcerts.com%2Fdocuments%2FDonintondisaster1988.pdf&ei=tXVjTt6rGsLsOaiSqJEK&usg=AFQjCNFRFH7HQHUki8adUnfClYBAoaa_1g}
    }
    					
    VandeVelde2007 Van de Velde, S.; Broos, P.; Van Bouwelen, M.; De Win, R.; Sermon, A.; Verduyckt, J.; Van Tichelen, A.; Lauwaert, D.; Vantroyen, B.; Tobback, C.; Van den Steene, P.; Villere, S.; Mieres, C.U.; Göbl, G.; Schunder, S.; Monsieurs, K.; Bierens, J.; Cassan, P.; Davoli, E.; Sabbe, M.; Lo, G.; De Vries, M. & Aertgeerts, B. European first aid guidelines 2007 Resuscitation
    Vol. 72 (2) , pp. 240-251  
    article 1a
    Abstract: AIM
    Our objectives were to determine the most effective, safe, and feasible first aid (FA) techniques and procedures, and to formulate valid recommendations for training. We focussed on emergencies involving few casualties, where emergency medical services or healthcare professionals are not immediately present at the scene, but are available within a short space of time. Due to time and resource constraints, we limited ourselves to safety, emergency removal, psychosocial FA, traumatology, and poisoning. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was not included because guidelines are already available from the European Resuscitation Council (ERC). The FA guidelines are intended to provide guidance to authors of FA handbooks and those responsible for FA programmes. These guidelines, together with the ERC resuscitation guidelines, will be integrated into a European FA Reference Guide and a European FA Manual.

    METHODS
    To create these guidelines we used an evidence-based guideline development process, based on the methodology of the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN).

    RESULTS
    The recommendations cover FA for bleeding, wounds, burns, spinal and head trauma, musculoskeletal trauma, and poisoning, as well as safety and psychosocial FA.

    CONCLUSIONS
    Where good evidence was available, we were able to turn science into practice. Where evidence was lacking, the recommendations were consensus-based. These guidelines provide systematically developed recommendations and justifications for the procedures and techniques that should be included in FA manuals and training programmes.

    BibTeX:
    @article{VandeVelde2007,
      author = {Van de Velde, Stijn and Broos, Paul and Van Bouwelen, Marc and De Win, Rudy and Sermon, An and Verduyckt, Johann and Van Tichelen, André and Lauwaert, Door and Vantroyen, Barbara and Tobback, Christina and Van den Steene, Patrick and Villere, Sarmite and Mieres, Carlos Urkia and Göbl, Gabor and Schunder, Susanne and Monsieurs, Koenraad and Bierens, Joost and Cassan, Pascal and Davoli, Enrico and Sabbe, Marc and Lo, Grace and De Vries, Maaike and Aertgeerts, Bert},
      title = {European first aid guidelines},
      journal = {Resuscitation},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {72},
      number = {2},
      pages = {240--251},
      note = {PMID: 17157974},
      url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17157974},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2006.10.023}
    }
    					
    Varon2003 Varon, J.; Fromm, R.E.; Chanin, K.; Filbin, M. & Vutpakdi, K. Critical illness at mass gatherings is uncommon 2003 Journal of Emergency Medicine
    Vol. 25 (4) , pp. 409 - 413  
    article 2011.09.09
    Abstract: Abstract—Gatherings of large numbers of people at
    concerts, sporting events, and other occasions lead to an
    assembled population with a potential for a wide variety of
    illnesses and injuries. The collection of large numbers of
    people in a single location has led some authors to recommend
    the placement of resuscitation equipment or other
    medical services in close proximity to these activities. These
    recommendations not withstanding, data on the frequency
    of critical illness at mass gatherings (a group exceeding
    1000 persons) are difficult to ascertain. Therefore, it was
    the purpose of this study to describe the incidence of critical
    illnesses among assembled populations at mass gatherings.
    An observational prospective study was conducted involving
    patient encounters at a large, multipurpose, indoor
    mass-gathering complex in Houston, Texas occurring between
    Septemver 1, 1996 and June 30, 1997. Demographic,
    treatment, disposition and diagnostic data were analyzed in
    a computerized database. Of the 3.3 million attendants to
    the 253 events analyzed during the 10-month study period,
    there were 2762 (0.08%) patient encounters. Fifty-two percent
    were women. Mean age was 32  15.6 years. Of these
    patients, 51.1% were patrons and the remaining patients
    were employees or contractors of the facility. A wide variety
    of illness was seen with trauma (39.5%), headache (31%),
    and other medical complaints (29.5%) being most frequent.
    Disposition of the patients included 95.3% being discharged
    to go back to the event and 2.2% being counseled to seek
    other medical attention. One hundred twenty-nine patients
    (4.7%) were referred to the Emergency Department (ED);
    of these, 70 were transferred for abrasions, lacerations, or
    skeletal injuries and 13 for chest pain. Of those referred to
    the ED, 50 (38.7%) patients were transported by ambulance
    and only 17.4% were admitted to telemetry, with
    none admitted to an ICU. It is concluded that critical illness
    at mass gatherings is infrequent, as seen in this study,
    with very few being admitted to telemetry and none to an
    ICU. Careful consideration of cost-benefit should occur
    when determining allocation of resources for these
    activities. © 2003 Elsevier Inc.
    e Keywords—concerts; sporting events; mass-gathering
    events; indoor stadium
    BibTeX:
    @article{Varon2003,
      author = {Joseph Varon and Robert E. Fromm and Katia Chanin and Michael Filbin and Kris Vutpakdi},
      title = {Critical illness at mass gatherings is uncommon},
      journal = {Journal of Emergency Medicine},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {25},
      number = {4},
      pages = {409 - 413},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S073646790300249X},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2003.03.001}
    }
    					
    Vendel2004 Vendel, C. Parade security concerns police 2004   electronic 2011.07.07
    BibTeX:
    @electronic{Vendel2004,
      author = {Christine Vendel},
      title = {Parade security concerns police},
      year = {2004},
      url = {http://blogs.kansascity.com/crime_scene/files/2004_parade_security_concerns_police_17_arrests.pdf}
    }
    					
    Villa2011 Villa, G.; Molina, I. & Fried, R. Modeling attendance at Spanish professional football league 2011 Journal of Applied Statistics
    Vol. 38 (6) , pp. 1189-1206  
    article 1a
    BibTeX:
    @article{Villa2011,
      author = {Villa, Guillermo and Molina, Isabel and Fried, Roland},
      title = {Modeling attendance at Spanish professional football league},
      journal = {Journal of Applied Statistics},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {38},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1189--1206},
      url = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02664763.2010.491859#preview},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02664763.2010.491859}
    }
    					
    Wargon2010 Wargon, M.; Casalino, E. & Guidet, B. From Model to Forecasting: A Multicenter Study in Emergency Departments 2010 Academic Emergency Medicine
    Vol. 17 (9) , pp. 970-978  
    article 1a
    Abstract: ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:970–978 © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency MedicineAbstractObjectives:  This study investigated whether mathematical models using calendar variables could identify the determinants of emergency department (ED) census over time in geographically close EDs and assessed the performance of long-term forecasts.Methods:  Daily visits in four EDs at academic hospitals in the Paris area were collected from 2004 to 2007. First, a general linear model (GLM) based on calendar variables was used to assess two consecutive periods of 2 years each to create and test the mathematical models. Second, 2007 ED attendance was forecasted, based on a training set of data from 2004 to 2006. These analyses were performed on data sets from each individual ED and in a virtual mega ED, grouping all of the visits. Models and forecast accuracy were evaluated by mean absolute percentage error (MAPE).Results:  The authors recorded 299,743 and 322,510 ED visits for the two periods, 2004–2005 and 2006–2007, respectively. The models accounted for up to 50% of the variations with a MAPE less than 10%. Visit patterns according to weekdays and holidays were different from one hospital to another, without seasonality. Influential factors changed over time within one ED, reducing the accuracy of forecasts. Forecasts led to a MAPE of 5.3% for the four EDs together and from 8.1% to 17.0% for each hospital.Conclusions:  Unexpectedly, in geographically close EDs over short periods of time, calendar determinants of attendance were different. In our setting, models and forecasts are more valuable to predict the combined ED attendance of several hospitals. In similar settings where resources are shared between facilities, these mathematical models could be a valuable tool to anticipate staff needs and site allocation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wargon2010,
      author = {Wargon, Mathias and Casalino, Enrique and Guidet, Bertrand},
      title = {From Model to Forecasting: A Multicenter Study in Emergency Departments},
      journal = {Academic Emergency Medicine},
      publisher = {Blackwell Publishing Ltd},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {17},
      number = {9},
      pages = {970--978},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1553-2712.2010.00847.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1553-2712.2010.00847.x}
    }
    					
    Wassertheil2000 Wassertheil, J.; Keane, G.; Fisher, N. & Leditschke, J. Cardiac arrest outcomes at the Melbourne Cricket Ground and Shrine of Remembrance using a tiered response strategy-a forerunner to public access defibrillation. 2000 Resuscitation
    Vol. 44 , pp. 97-104  
    article 2011.09.14
    Abstract: The provision of medical, paramedical and first aid services at major public events is an important concern for pre-hospital emergency medical care providers. Patient outcomes of a cardiac arrest response strategy employed at the Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG) and the Shrine of Remembrance by St John Ambulance Australia volunteers are reported. Twenty-eight consecutive events occurring between December 1989 and December 1997 have been analysed. Included are three cardiac arrests managed at ANZAC day parades utilising the same response strategy by the same unit. The incidence of cardiac arrest at the MCG was 1:500 000 attendances. Of the 28 patients, 24 (86%) left the venue alive and 20 (71%) were discharged home from hospital. In all cases the initial rhythm was ventricular fibrillation (VF). All 26 patients (93%) who were defibrillated by St John teams had this intervention within 5 min from the documented time of collapse. One patient in VF spontaneously reverted during CPR. Of the eight fatalities, four died at the scene. At major public venues and events, a co-ordinated emergency life support provision strategy, tailor made for the venue, is necessary for the delivery of prompt CPR, timely defibrillation and advanced life support.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wassertheil2000,
      author = {J Wassertheil and G Keane and N Fisher and J.F Leditschke},
      title = {Cardiac arrest outcomes at the Melbourne Cricket Ground and Shrine of Remembrance using a tiered response strategy-a forerunner to public access defibrillation.},
      journal = {Resuscitation},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {44},
      pages = {97-104},
      url = {http://www.resuscitationjournal.com/article/S0300-9572(99)00168-9/abstract}
    }
    					
    Wilbert-Lampen2008 Wilbert-Lampen, U.; Leistner, D.; Greven, S.; Pohl, T.; Sper, S.; Völker, C.; Güthlin, D.; Plasse, A.; Knez, A.; Küchenhoff, H. & Steinbeck, G. Cardiovascular Events during World Cup Soccer 2008 The New England Journal of Medicine
    Vol. 358 , pp. 475-483  
    article 2012.03.18
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wilbert-Lampen2008,
      author = {Ute Wilbert-Lampen and David Leistner and Sonja Greven and Tilmann Pohl and Sebastian Sper and Christoph Völker and Denise Güthlin and Andrea Plasse and Andreas Knez and Helmut Küchenhoff and Gerhard Steinbeck},
      title = {Cardiovascular Events during World Cup Soccer},
      journal = {The New England Journal of Medicine},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {358},
      pages = {475-483},
      url = {http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMoa0707427}
    }
    					
    Witt1995 Witt, S.F.; Sykes, A.M. & Dartus, M. Forecasting international conference attendance 1995 Tourism Management
    Vol. 16 (8) , pp. 559-570  
    article 1a
    Abstract: textlessptextgreatertextlessbr/textgreaterThere are many tourism modelling/forecasting studies, but most of these are concerned with holiday tourism or total tourism (ie not disaggregated by visit purpose); conference tourism is virtually ignored. In this paper, an econometric model which explains tourism demand for an international conference is developed. The model is specified in logistic form and is estimated using maximum likelihood techniques. Various alternative forms of the model are considered. For the forecasting model selected, good empirical results are obtained in terms of model fit, and, in contrast with previous (non-conference) tourism forecasting findings, the forecasts generated by the econometric model are more accurate than random walk forecasts.textless/ptextgreater
    BibTeX:
    @article{Witt1995,
      author = {Witt, Stephen F and Sykes, Alan M and Dartus, Mireille},
      title = {Forecasting international conference attendance},
      journal = {Tourism Management},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {16},
      number = {8},
      pages = {559--570},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0261517795000798},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/16/0261-5177(95)00079-8}
    }
    					
    Woodall2010 Woodall, J.; Watt, K.; Walker, D.; Tippett, V.; Enraght-Moony, E.; Bertolo, C.; Mildwaters, B. & Morrison, G. Planning volunteer responses to low-volume mass gatherings: do event characteristics predict patient workload? 2010 Prehosp Disaster Med
    Vol. 25 (5) , pp. 442-448  
    article 1a
    Abstract: INTRODUCTION Workforce planning for first aid and medical coverage of mass gatherings is hampered by limited research. In particular, the characteristics and likely presentation patterns of low-volume mass gatherings of between several hundred to several thousand people are poorly described in the existing literature. OBJECTIVES This study was conducted to: 1. Describe key patient and event characteristics of medical presentations at a series of mass gatherings, including events smaller than those previously described in the literature; 2. Determine whether event type and event size affect the mean number of patients presenting for treatment per event, and specifically, whether the 1:2,000 deployment rule used by St John Ambulance Australia is appropriate; and 3. Identify factors that are predictive of injury at mass gatherings. METHODS A retrospective, observational, case-series design was used to examine all cases treated by two Divisions of St John Ambulance (Queensland) in the greater metropolitan Brisbane region over a three-year period (01 January 2002-31 December 2004). Data were obtained from routinely collected patient treatment forms completed by St John officers at the time of treatment. Event-related data (e.g., weather, event size) were obtained from event forms designed for this study. Outcome measures include: total and average number of patient presentations for each event; event type; and event size category. Descriptive analyses were conducted using chi-square tests, and mean presentations per event and event type were investigated using Kruskal-Wallis tests. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify variables independently associated with injury presentation (compared with non-injury presentations). RESULTS Over the three-year study period, St John Ambulance officers treated 705 patients over 156 separate events. The mean number of patients who presented with any medical condition at small events (less than or equal to 2,000 attendees) did not differ significantly from that of large (textgreater2,000 attendees) events (4.44 vs. 4.67, F = 0.72, df = 1, 154, p = 0.79). Logistic regression analyses indicated that presentation with an injury compared with non-injury was independently associated with male gender, winter season, and sporting events, even after adjusting for relevant variables. CONCLUSIONS In this study of low-volume mass gatherings, a similar number of patients sought medical treatment at small (textless2,000 patrons) and large (textgreater2,000 patrons) events. This demonstrates that for low-volume mass gatherings, planning based solely on anticipated event size may be flawed, and could lead to inappropriate levels of first-aid coverage. This study also highlights the importance of considering other factors, such as event type and patient characteristics, when determining appropriate first-aid resourcing for low-volume events. Additionally, identification of factors predictive of injury presentations at mass gatherings has the potential to significantly enhance the ability of event coordinators to plan effective prevention strategies and response capability for these events.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Woodall2010,
      author = {Woodall, John and Watt, Kerrianne and Walker, Damien and Tippett, Vivienne and Enraght-Moony, Emma and Bertolo, Chris and Mildwaters, Brett and Morrison, Glen},
      title = {Planning volunteer responses to low-volume mass gatherings: do event characteristics predict patient workload?},
      journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {25},
      number = {5},
      pages = {442--448},
      note = {PMID: 21053194},
      url = {http://pdm.medicine.wisc.edu/Volume_25/issue_5/woodall.pdf}
    }
    					
    Xie2000 Xie, P.F. & Smith, S.L.J. Improving forecasts for world's fair attendance: incorporating income effects 2000 Event Management
    Vol. 6 , pp. 15-23  
    article 2011.07.07
    Abstract: An accurate attendance forecast is one of the most important elements of planning a world's fair. This article reports on a test of a possible improvement to the forecast method most commonly used by consultants, with data from four North American world's fairs. The results suggest that incorporating income effects improves forecast accuracy. The modification is assessed in terms of data access requirements, cost, ease of implementation, and accuracy. Some recommendations for further research are also identified.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Xie2000,
      author = {Philip Feifan Xie and Stephen L. J. Smith},
      title = {Improving forecasts for world's fair attendance: incorporating income effects},
      journal = {Event Management},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {6},
      pages = {15-23},
      url = {http://lin.ca/Uploads/cclr9/CCLR9_12.pdf}
    }
    					
    Yancey2005 Yancey, A.H. Emergency Medical Care at Mass gatherings ( Principles of EMS systems ) 2005 Principles of EMS systems , pp. 218-233   inbook 2011.11.20
    BibTeX:
    @inbook{Yancey2005,
      author = {A. H. Yancey},
      title = {Principles of EMS systems},
      publisher = {Amercian College of Emergency Physicians},
      year = {2005},
      pages = {218-233},
      url = {http://books.google.com/books?id=yb3POJWHwdcC&pg=PA218}
    }
    					
    Yancey2008 Yancey, A.H.; Fuhrib, P.D.; Pillayc, Y. & Greenwalda, I. World Cup 2010 planning: An integration of public health and medical systems 2008 Public Health
    Vol. 122 , pp. 1020-1029  
    article 2011.08.15
    Abstract: Objectives: To present crucial stages of planning and the resources involved
    in the medical and health care that will address issues affecting the health
    and safety of all participants in the 2010 World Cup.
    Design: Relevant literature reviews of mass gathering medical care supplemented
    experience of the authors in planning for previous similar events. Attention is focused
    on issues wherein effective planning requires the integration of public health
    practices with those of clinical emergency medical services. The tables that are included
    serve to illustrate the depth and breadth of planning as well as the organizational
    relationships required to execute care of a universally acceptable
    standard.
    Conclusions: This article offers guidance in planning for the 2010 World Cup health
    and emergency medical care, emphasizing the need for integration of public health
    and medical practices. It depicts the span of planning envisioned, the organizational
    relationships crucial to it, and emphasizes the necessity of an early start.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Yancey2008,
      author = {Arthur H. Yancey and Peter D. Fuhrib and Yogan Pillayc and Ian Greenwalda},
      title = {World Cup 2010 planning: An integration of public health and medical systems},
      journal = {Public Health},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {122},
      pages = {1020-1029},
      url = {http://xa.yimg.com/kq/groups/16063327/696201010/name/Yancey+et+al.+-+2008+-+World+Cup+2010+planning+an+integration+of+public+health+and+medical+systems.pdf}
    }
    					
    Yates2001 Yates, K.M.; Hazell, W.C. & Schweder, L. Medical care at the Sweetwaters Music Festival 2001 The New Zealand Medical Journal
    Vol. 114 (1129) , pp. 162-164  
    article 2011_a
    Abstract: AIMS To describe medical cover and medical presentations at the four-day 1999 Sweetwaters Music Festival, and make comparisons with other festivals. METHODS All medical contacts were counted, and patients presenting to the medical tent were included in the study. Case records were studied to determine demographic data, nature of complaint, treatment and disposition. A Medline literature search was performed to obtain information on other festivals. RESULTS There were 2,231 medical contacts overall (8.9% of estimated attendees) and 217 presentations to the medical tent (0.9% of estimated attendees). 53% of patients presenting to the medical tent were men and the mean patient age was 25 years. Lacerations (16, intoxication (13, local infections (12 and soft tissue injuries (9 were the most common problems. There were no deaths or cardiac arrests. CONCLUSION Problems encountered were similar to other music festivals, with minor injuries predominant.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Yates2001,
      author = {Yates, K M and Hazell, W C and Schweder, L},
      title = {Medical care at the Sweetwaters Music Festival},
      journal = {The New Zealand Medical Journal},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {114},
      number = {1129},
      pages = {162--164},
      note = {PMID: 11400924},
      url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11400924}
    }
    					
    Yazawa2007 Yazawa, K.; Kamijo, Y.; Sakai, R.; Ohashi, M. & Owa, M. Medical Care for a Mass Gathering: The Suwa Onbashira Festival 2007 Prehosp Disaster Med
    Vol. 22 , pp. 5  
    article 2011.08.15
    Abstract: Introduction: The Suwa Onbashira Festival is held every six years and draws
    approximately one million spectators from across Japan. Men ride the
    Onbashira pillars (logs) down steep slopes.At each festival, several people are
    crushed under the heavy log. During the 2004 festival, for the first time, a
    medical care system that coordinated a medical team, an emergency medical
    service, related agencies, and local hospitals was constructed.
    Objective: The aims of this study were to characterize the spectrum of
    injuries and illness and to evaluate the medical care system of this festival.
    Methods: The festival was held 02 April–10 May 2004. The medical records
    of all of the patients who presented to an on-site medical tent or who were
    treated at the scene and transported to hospitals over a 12-day period were
    reviewed. The following items were evaluated: (1) the emergency medical system
    at the festival; (2) the environmental circumstances; and (3) patient data.
    Results: All medical usage rates are reported as patients per 10,000 attendees
    (PPTT). A total 1.8 million spectators attended the festival during the 12-
    day study period; a total of 237 patients presented to the medical tent (1.32
    PPTT), and 63 (27%) were transferred to hospitals (0.35 PPTT). Of the
    total, 135 (57%) suffered from trauma—two were severely injured with pelvic
    and cervical spine fractures; and 102 (43%) had medical problems including
    heat-related illness.
    Conclusions: Comprehensive medical care is essential for similar mass gatherings.
    The appropriate triage of patients can lead to efficient medical coverage.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Yazawa2007,
      author = {Kazuyuki Yazawa and Yukihiro Kamijo and Ryuichi Sakai and Masahiko Ohashi and Mafumi Owa},
      title = {Medical Care for a Mass Gathering: The Suwa Onbashira Festival},
      journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {22},
      pages = {5},
      url = {http://pdm.medicine.wisc.edu/Volume_22/issue_5/yazawa.pdf}
    }
    					
    Zakaria2006 Zakaria, M.I.; Isa, R.M.; Hamzah, M.S.S.C. & Ayob, N.A. Medical standby: an experience at the 4th national youth camping and motivation program organized by Maksak Malaysia 2006 Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences
    Vol. 13 , pp. 43-51  
    article 2011.06.25
    Abstract: Medical standby is the provision of emergency medical care and first aid for participants and/or spectators in a pre-planned event. This article describes the framework and the demographics of a medical standby at the 4th National Youth Camping and Motivation Program in Pasir Puteh, Kelantan from 30th July until the 3rd August 2004. The framework of the medical team is described based on the work process of any medical stand by. A medical encounter form was created for the medical standby defining the type of case seen (medical or trauma), name, age, race and diagnosis of the patient. We concluded that interagency collaboration during the initial planning and during the event itself is needed to ensure the smooth running of the medical standby. Most of the medical encounters were minor illnesses which are similar to previous studies and there was no case transferred to the hospital during that period.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Zakaria2006,
      author = {Mohd Idzwan Zakaria and Ridzuan Mohd Isa and Mohd Shaharudin Shah Che Hamzah and Noor Azleen Ayob},
      title = {Medical standby: an experience at the 4th national youth camping and motivation program organized by Maksak Malaysia},
      journal = {Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {13},
      pages = {43-51},
      url = {http://ernd.usm.my/journal/journal/mjms%20Jan%202006.pdf}
    }
    					
    Zeitz2005b Zeitz, D.K.; Bolton, S.; Dippy, R.; Dowling, Y.; Francis, L.; Thorne, J.; Butler, T. & Zeitz, D.C. Measuring Emergency Services Workload at Mass Gathering Events 2005   techreport 2011.06.26
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Zeitz2005b,
      author = {Dr Kathryn Zeitz and Shane Bolton and Russell Dippy and Yvette Dowling and Lee Francis and John Thorne and Terry Butler and Dr Chris Zeitz},
      title = {Measuring Emergency Services Workload at Mass Gathering Events},
      year = {2005},
      url = {http://www.aemvf.org.au/site/_content/resource/00000010-docsource.pdf}
    }
    					
    Zeitz2008 Zeitz, K.; Zeitz, C.; Arbon, P.; Cheney, F.; Johnston, R. & Hennekam, J. Practical Solutions for Injury Surveillance at Mass Gatherings 2008 Prehosp Disaster Med
    Vol. 23 (1) , pp. 76-81  
    article 2011.08.15
    BibTeX:
    @article{Zeitz2008,
      author = {K. Zeitz and C. Zeitz and P. Arbon and F. Cheney and R. Johnston and J. Hennekam},
      title = {Practical Solutions for Injury Surveillance at Mass Gatherings},
      journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {23},
      number = {1},
      pages = {76-81},
      url = {http://pdm.medicine.wisc.edu/Volume_23/issue_1/zeitz.pdf}
    }
    					
    Zeitz2002 Zeitz, K.M.; Schneider, D.P.; Jarrett, D. & Zeitz, C.J. Mass Gathering Events: Retrospective Analysis of Patient Presentations over Seven Years at an Agricultural and Horticultural Show 2002 Prehosp Disaster Med , pp. 147-150   article 2010.09.30
    BibTeX:
    @article{Zeitz2002,
      author = {Kathryn M. Zeitz and David P.A. Schneider and Dannielle Jarrett and Christopher J. Zeitz},
      title = {Mass Gathering Events: Retrospective Analysis of Patient Presentations over Seven Years at an Agricultural and Horticultural Show},
      journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
      year = {2002},
      pages = {147-150},
      url = {http://pdm.medicine.wisc.edu/Volume_17/issue_3/zeitz.pdf}
    }
    					
    Zeitz2009 Zeitz, K.M.; Tan, H.M.; Grief, M.; Couns, P.C. & Zeitz, C.J. Crowd behavior at mass gatherings: a literature review 2009 Prehosp Disaster Med
    Vol. 24 (1) , pp. 32-38  
    article 1a
    Abstract: Gaining an understanding of crowd behavior is important in supporting timely and appropriate crowd management principles in the planning and provision of emergency services at mass gatherings. This paper provides a review of the current understanding of the psychological factors of a crowd within the psychosocial domain as they apply to mass-gathering settings. It can be concluded from this review that there is a large theory-practice gap in relation to crowd psychology and the mass-gathering setting. The literature has highlighted two important elements of crowd behavior-there must be a "seed" and people must engage. Understanding these behaviors may provide opportunities to change crowd behavior outcomes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Zeitz2009,
      author = {Zeitz, Kathryn M and Tan, Heather M and Grief, M and Couns, P C and Zeitz, Christopher J},
      title = {Crowd behavior at mass gatherings: a literature review},
      journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {24},
      number = {1},
      pages = {32--38},
      note = {PMID: 19557955},
      url = {http://pdm.medicine.wisc.edu/Volume_24/issue_1/zeitz.pdf}
    }
    					
    Zeitz2005 Zeitz, K.M.; Zeitz, C.J. & Arbon, P. Forecasting Medical Work at Mass-Gathering Events: Predictive Model Versus Retrospective Review 2005 Prehosp Disaster Med
    Vol. 20 (3) , pp. 164-168  
    article 2010.09.29
    BibTeX:
    @article{Zeitz2005,
      author = {Kathryn M. Zeitz and Chris J. Zeitz and Paul Arbon},
      title = {Forecasting Medical Work at Mass-Gathering Events: Predictive Model Versus Retrospective Review},
      journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {20},
      number = {3},
      pages = {164-168},
      url = {http://pdm.medicine.wisc.edu/Volume_20/issue_3/zeitz.pdf}
    }
    					
    Zeitz2005a Zeitz, K.M.; Zeitz, C.J. & Kadow-Griffin, C. Injury occurrences at a Mass Gathering Event 2005 Journal of Emergency Primary Health Care
    Vol. 3 , pp. 990098  
    article 2010.09.30
    BibTeX:
    @article{Zeitz2005a,
      author = {K. M. Zeitz and C. J. Zeitz and C. Kadow-Griffin},
      title = {Injury occurrences at a Mass Gathering Event},
      journal = {Journal of Emergency Primary Health Care},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {3},
      pages = {990098}
    }
    					
    Zuidhof2010 Zuidhof, G. Capacity planning of ambulance services: statistical analysis, forecasting and staffing 2010 School: Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam -- Centrum Wiskunde en Informatica Amsterdam   mastersthesis 2011.07.03
    BibTeX:
    @mastersthesis{Zuidhof2010,
      author = {Geertje Zuidhof},
      title = {Capacity planning of ambulance services: statistical analysis, forecasting and staffing},
      school = {Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam -- Centrum Wiskunde en Informatica Amsterdam},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://www.math.vu.nl/~sbhulai/theses/stageverslag-zuidhof.pdf}
    }
    					
    Brennan2005 Brennan, J.A. & Krohmer, J.R. (Hrsg.) Principles of EMS systems 2005   book 2011.11.20
    Abstract: Foreword
    Jeffrey W. Runge, MD, FACEP

    Introduction
    John A. Brennan, MD, FAAP, FACEP, and Jon R. Krohmer, MD, FACEP

    Chapter 1: History of EMS: Foundations of a System
    Ronald D. Stewart, OC, BA, BSc, MD, FRCPC, DSc

    Chapter 2: EMS Systems
    Peter T. Pons, MD, FACEP, and Rick Murray, EMT-P

    Chapter 3: State and Regional EMS Systems
    Susan M. Nedza, MD, MBA, FACEP, and Leslee Stein-Spencer, RN, MS

    Chapter 4: Trauma Systems
    John C. Sacra, MD, FACEP

    Chapter 5: Emergency Departments and EMS
    William A. Gluckman, DO, FACEP, EMT-P, Neill S. Oster, MD, and Nancy E. Holecek, RN

    Chapter 6: Medical Oversight and Accountability
    Robert A. Swor, DO, FACEP

    Chapter 7: Administration, Management, and Operations
    Richard Herrington and Gordon Bergh

    Chapter 8: System Financing
    Robert R. Bass, MD, FACEP

    Chapter 9: Communications
    Robert E. Suter, DO, MHA, FACEP and Hon. Ricardo Martinez, MD, FACEP

    Chapter 10: Emergency Medical Dispatch
    Victoria A. Maguire, EMTP, EMD-I, and James N. Pruden, MD, FACEP

    Chapter 11: Medical Record Documentation and EMS Information Systems
    Greg D. Mears, MD, FACEP

    Chapter 12: Ground Transport: Ambulances
    Franklin D. Pratt, MD, FACEP, and Jerry Overton, MPA

    Chapter 13: Ground Interfacility and Specialty Care Transfer
    Robert M. Domeier, MD, FACEP

    Chapter 14: Air Medical Transport
    Kenneth A. Williams MD, FACEP, and Kenneth J. Robinson, MD, FACEP

    Chapter 15: EMS for Children
    Marianne Gausche-Hill, MD, FAAP, FACEP; John A. Brennan, MD,FAAP, FACEP; and Robert K. Waddell, II

    Chapter 16: Rural EMS
    Bob W. Bailey and Dan Manz

    Chapter 17: Disaster Response
    Stuart Weiss, MD, FACEP, FAAP; Peter I. Dworsky, MPH, EMT-P; and William A. Gluckman, DO, FACEP, EMT-P

    Chapter 18: Emergency Medical Care at Mass Gatherings
    Arthur H. Yancey, II, MD, MPH, FACEP

    Chapter 19: EMS Response to Terrorist Incidents and Weapons of Mass Destruction
    Jerry L. Mothershead, MD, FACEP, and Thomas H. Blackwell, MD, FACEP

    Chapter 20: Operational EMS
    Mary S. Bogucki, MD, PhD, FACEP, and Joseph P. Heck, DO, FACOEP, FACEP

    Chapter 21: EMS and Public Health
    James V. Dunford Jr., MD, FACEP, and Theodore C. Chan, MD, FACEP

    Chapter 22: Research
    Marianne Gausche-Hill, MD, FAAP, FACEP, and Roger J. Lewis, MD, PhD, FACEP

    Chapter 23: EMS Education Programs
    Daniel L. Storer, MD, FACEP

    Chapter 24: EMS Providers and System Roles
    Mikel A. Sucher, MD and Jennifer L. Waxler, DO, FACOEP, FACEP

    Chapter 25: Occupational Health Issues
    Deb Hogue, RN, ADN, EMT-P and Lynn Zimmerman, RN, BSN, Med

    Chapter 26: Medical-Legal Concerns in EMS
    Leah J. Heimbach, JD, RN, and Douglas M. Wolfberg, Esquire

    Chapter 27: EMTALA and EMS
    James C. Mitchiner, MD, MPH, FACEP

    BibTeX:
    @book{Brennan2005,,
      title = {Principles of EMS systems},
      publisher = {Ame},
      year = {2005},
      note = {ISBN:978-0763733827},
      url = {http://books.google.com/books?id=yb3POJWHwdcC&pg=PA1}
    }
    					
    HSE1999 Health & Executive, S. (Hrsg.) Health and Safety executive The event safety guide - A guide to health, safety and welfare at music and similar events. 1999   manual 2011.07.15
    Abstract: Revised to align with recent law changes and event industry best practice. Provides 'tried and tested' advice on which to organise health and safety at music events, although many chapters may also apply to other gatherings sharing similar characteristics. Intended to enable organisers, local authorities, emergency services and HSE to work together to improve safety. As such, this guidance was devised in consultation with an event industry working group. In addition to broader safety headlines, such as venue and site design, fire procedures and major incident planning, the guidance also scopes pertinent circumstantial issues. Accordingly, specifics like transport, barriers, electrics, refreshments, merchandising, amusements, attractions, sanitation, noise, vibration and many other relevant subjects are also considered.
    BibTeX:
    @manual{HSE1999,,
      title = {The event safety guide -- A guide to health, safety and welfare at music and similar events.},
      publisher = {HSE Books},
      year = {1999},
      note = {ISBN 9780717624539},
      url = {http://books.hse.gov.uk/hse/public/saleproduct.jsf?catalogueCode=9780717624539}
    }
    					
    AEMS Australian Emergency Manual Series   electronic 2011.07.01
    BibTeX:
    @electronic{AEMS,,
      title = {Australian Emergency Manual Series},
      url = {http://www.ag.gov.au/www/emaweb/emaweb.nsf/Page/Publications_AustralianEmergencyManualSeries_AustralianEmergencyManualSeries-A-Z}
    }
    					
    BS_EN1789_2000 British Standard BS EN 1789:2000   standard 2012.03.18
    BibTeX:
    @standard{BS_EN1789_2000,,
      title = {BS EN 1789:2000},
      url = {http://www.normeca.com/normeca/products/ambulance/Medical%20vehicles%20and%20their%20equipment%20part%201.pdf}
    }
    					
    crc_disastermanagement_maintaining_e Canadian Red Cross, Salvation Army, St John Ambulance, Public Health Agency of Canada Maintaining the Passion - Sustaining the Emergency Response Episodic Volunteer   manual 2012.03.20
    BibTeX:
    @manual{crc_disastermanagement_maintaining_e,,
      title = {Maintaining the Passion -- Sustaining the Emergency Response Episodic Volunteer},
      url = {http://www.redcross.ca/cmslib/general/crc_disastermanagement_maintaining_e.pdf}
    }
    					
    fema_secp Special Events Contingency Planning   techreport 2011.06.27
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{fema_secp,,
      title = {Special Events Contingency Planning},
      url = {http://www.unitedsiteservices.com/restroom-planning/fema_secp.pdf}
    }
    					
    ISO31000 International Organization for Standardization ISO31000:2009 - Risk management — Principles and guidelines   standard 2012.03.11
    BibTeX:
    @standard{ISO31000,,
      title = {ISO31000:2009 -- Risk management — Principles and guidelines},
      url = {http://sherq.org/31000.pdf}
    }
    					
    NWCHP Mass Gatherings: Are You Prepared?   techreport 2011.06.25
    Review: Met en lumière l'importance d'une analyse de risques rationelle intégrée à la planification d'actions préventives de secours.
    Des tableaux synthétiques aident le lecteur à conduire sa propre analyse de risques.
    Axé sur la santé publique, mais utile en général.
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{NWCHP,,
      title = {Mass Gatherings: Are You Prepared?},
      url = {http://www.nwcphp.org/docs/mass_gatherings/mass_gathering_print_version.pdf}
    }
    					
    PSE1_2007 Référentiel National - Compétences de Sécurité Civile - Premiers secours en équipe de niveau 1   manual 2013.02.17
    BibTeX:
    @manual{PSE1_2007,,
      title = {Référentiel National -- Compétences de Sécurité Civile -- Premiers secours en équipe de niveau 1},
      url = {http://www.interieur.gouv.fr/content/download/36654/277153/file/PSE1.pdf}
    }
    					
    PSE2_2007 Référentiel National - Compétences de Sécurité Civile - Premiers secours en équipe de niveau 2   manual 2013.02.17
    BibTeX:
    @manual{PSE2_2007,,
      title = {Référentiel National -- Compétences de Sécurité Civile -- Premiers secours en équipe de niveau 2},
      url = {http://www.interieur.gouv.fr/content/download/36654/277153/file/PSE2.pdf}
    }
    					
    REALTIMEROME REAL TIME ROME   electronic 2012.04.01
    Abstract: Real Time Rome is the MIT SENSEable City Lab’s contribution to the 2006 Venice Biennale, directed by professor Richard Burdett. The project aggregated data from cell phones (obtained using Telecom Italia's innovative Lochness platform), buses and taxis in Rome to better understand urban dynamics in real time. By revealing the pulse of the city, the project aims to show how technology can help individuals make more informed decisions about their environment. In the long run, will it be possible to reduce the inefficiencies of present day urban systems and open the way to a more sustainable urban future?
    BibTeX:
    @electronic{REALTIMEROME,,
      title = {REAL TIME ROME},
      url = {http://senseable.mit.edu/realtimerome/}
    }
    					
    SAPrisk Risk assessment   techreport 2012.03.11
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{SAPrisk,,
      title = {Risk assessment},
      url = {www.sapolice.sa.gov.au/public/download.jsp?id=49988}
    }
    					
    SAUDI The Saudi diploma in Mass gatherings and disasters healthcare   electronic 2013.03.05
    Abstract: This document describes the structure and content of the Saudi diploma in mass gatherings and disasters management
    BibTeX:
    @electronic{SAUDI,,
      title = {The Saudi diploma in Mass gatherings and disasters healthcare},
      url = {http://arabic.scfhs.org.sa/new/pdf/Approach_to_medicine_crowd.pdf}
    }
    					
    UEFA2012 UEFA Regulations of the UEFA Champions League - 2012-15 Cycle - 2012/13 Season   manual 2013.02.17
    BibTeX:
    @manual{UEFA2012,,
      title = {Regulations of the UEFA Champions League -- 2012-15 Cycle -- 2012/13 Season},
      url = {http://www.uefa.com/MultimediaFiles/Download/Regulations/competitions/Regulations/01/79/68/69/1796869_DOWNLOAD.pdf}
    }
    					
    WEBSITE001 The International Centre for Crowd Management and Security Studies -- Buckinghamshire New University   electronic 2011.09.04
    BibTeX:
    @electronic{WEBSITE001,,
      url = {www.crowdsafetymanagement.co.uk}
    }
    					
    Alberta2012 Alberta Emergency Management AgencyAlberta Emergency Management Agency Emergency Response Planning for Mass Gatherings (DRAFT) - A guide to assist event planners in the preparation for mass gathering events in the province of Alberta 2012   manual 2012.08.16
    BibTeX:
    @manual{Alberta2012,,
      title = {Emergency Response Planning for Mass Gatherings (DRAFT) -- A guide to assist event planners in the preparation for mass gathering events in the province of Alberta},
      year = {2012},
      url = {http://www.edmonton.ca/for_residents/Interim_Draft_Mass_Gathering.docx}
    }
    					
    HPA2012 United Kingdom Health Protection Agency, in conjunction with WHO collaborating centre on mass gatherings and extreme events Mass Gatherings Factsheet 2012   manual 2012.08.20
    BibTeX:
    @manual{HPA2012,,
      title = {Mass Gatherings Factsheet},
      year = {2012},
      edition = {Disaster Risk Management for Health Fact Sheets},
      url = {http://www.hpa.org.uk/webc/HPAwebFile/HPAweb_C/1317134739452}
    }
    					
    CR2011 Croix-Rouge de Belgique Gestion du Volontariat - Guide pratique 2011   manual 2012.03.20
    BibTeX:
    @manual{CR2011,,
      title = {Gestion du Volontariat -- Guide pratique},
      year = {2011},
      url = {http://www.croix-rouge.be/linkservid/1DA4748C-F428-2AAC-01D8C81849B63ABF/showMeta/0/}
    }
    					
    DAILYMAIL2011 Daily Mail Festival crush disasters could be prevented with software that detects dangerous crowd build-up 2011   electronic 2011.09.04
    BibTeX:
    @electronic{DAILYMAIL2011,,
      title = {Festival crush disasters could be prevented with software that detects dangerous crowd build-up},
      year = {2011},
      url = {http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2022203/Festival-crush-disasters-prevented-software-detects-dangerous-crowd-build-up.html}
    }
    					
    IFRC2011 International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies International first aid and resuscitation guidelines 2011 2011   manual 2013.02.17
    BibTeX:
    @manual{IFRC2011,,
      title = {International first aid and resuscitation guidelines 2011},
      year = {2011},
      note = {"For National Society First Aid Programme Managers, Scientific Advisory Groups, First Aid Instructors and First Responders"},
      url = {http://www.ifrc.org/PageFiles/53459/IFRC%20-International%20first%20aid%20and%20resuscitation%20guideline%202011.pdf}
    }
    					
    NCTC2011 National Counter-terrorism Committee National Guidelines For The Protection Of Places Of Mass Gathering From Terrorism 2011   manual 2013.03.05
    BibTeX:
    @manual{NCTC2011,,
      title = {National Guidelines For The Protection Of Places Of Mass Gathering From Terrorism},
      year = {2011},
      url = {http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/agd/WWW/rwpattach.nsf/VAP/%28689F2CCBD6DC263C912FB74B15BE8285%29~Place+of+Mass+Gatherings+from+Terrorism+PDF.pdf/$file/Place+of+Mass+Gatherings+from+Terrorism+PDF.pdf}
    }
    					
    Vaud2011 Canton de Vaud, Service de la Santé Publique Directives sur la mise en place de dispositifs sanitaires de manifestations 2011   manual 2011.07.14
    BibTeX:
    @manual{Vaud2011,,
      title = {Directives sur la mise en place de dispositifs sanitaires de manifestations},
      year = {2011},
      note = {adoptées par la Commission pour les mesures sanitaires d'urgence (CMSU) le 11 janvier 2011},
      url = {http://www.vd.ch/fileadmin/user_upload/themes/sante_social/services_soins/fichiers_pdf/CMSU/Interventions/Directives_service_sanitaire_Manifestations-janv_2011.pdf}
    }
    					
    Duisburg2010 Der Speigel A series of mistakes 2010 infographie  electronic 2011.06.27
    BibTeX:
    @electronic{Duisburg2010,,
      title = {A series of mistakes},
      year = {2010}
    }
    					
    Lancet2010 2010 The Lancet Conferences -- Mass gathering medicine   conference 2011.06.21
    Abstract: Presentations
    Saturday October 23, 2010
    2010-10-23T00:00:00
    Session I: A model for mass gathering medicine
    08:00-08:20 A future model for mass gatherings Habib Zein Alabideen Abstract (pdf)
    08:20-08:40 Managing the crowds: the Saudi Hajj experience Mansour AlTurki Abstract (pdf) Presentation (pdf)
    08:40-09:00 Managing Hajj during crisis: MoH perspective Ziad Memish Abstract (pdf)
    09:00-09:20 Future infrastructure upgrades of Hajj premises Sami Barhameen Presentation (pdf)
    Session II: Global health and mass gatherings
    10:00-10:30 History and implications of mass gatherings Qanta Ahmed Abstract (pdf) Presentation (pdf)
    10:30-11:00 Global health security: current challenges Konrad Hayashi Abstract (pdf) Presentation (pdf)
    11:00-11:30 Risk management communication Dan Rutz Abstract (pdf) Presentation (pdf)
    11:30-12:00 The 2009 US Presidential Inauguration: planning, consideration, and overview David E Marcozzi Abstract (pdf)
    Session III: Health services delivery during mass gathering and emergencies

    13:30-14:00 Methodology for assessing health risks for travellers to mass gatherings Gary Brunette Abstract (pdf) Presentation (pdf)

    14:00-14:30 Meningococcal disease and mass gathering David Johnson Abstract (pdf) Presentation (pdf)
    14:30-15:00 Public health and communications strategies during mass gatherings Scott McNabb Abstract (pdf) Presentation (pdf)
    Session IV: International health regulations during mass gatherings

    15:45-16:05 International health regulations and mass gatherings Gilles Poumerol Abstract (pdf) Presentation (pdf)
    16:05-16:25 Historical perspective on mass gatherings David Heymann Abstract (pdf) Presentation (pdf)

    Sunday October 24, 2010
    Session V: Communicable diseases during mass gatherings
    08:00-08:30 Global perspectives on communicable diseases Ali Khan Abstract (pdf) Presentation (pdf)
    08:30-09:00 TB transmission among airline passengers and during mass gatherings Ibrahim Abubakar Abstract (pdf) Presentation (pdf)
    09:00-09:30 Vaccination preventable diseases during mass gatherings Philippe Gautret Abstract (pdf) Presentation (pdf)
    Session VI: Environmental challenges during mass gatherings
    10:30-11:00 Epidemic intelligence for mass gathering events Evelyn Depoortere Abstract (pdf) Presentation (pdf)
    11:00-11:30 Environmental management during mass gatherings Osama Albar Presentation (pdf)
    Session VII: The first major mass gathering in Africa: new challenges, new opportunities for legacy
    13:00-13:30 Session VII: The first major mass gathering in Africa: new challenges, new opportunities for legacy Pumzile Kedama Abstract (pdf) Presentation (pdf)
    13:30-14:00 Public health during the FIFA World Cup Stella Anyangwe Abstract (pdf) Presentation (pdf)
    14:00-14:30 Disease laboratory surveillance during the FIFA World Cup Lucille Blumberg Abstract (pdf) Presentation (pdf)
    14:30-15:00 Public health and the FIFA World Cup: the FIFA perspective Jiri Dvorak Abstract (pdf)
    Session VIII: The multidisciplinary nature of mass gathering legacy

    16:00-16:30 Framing mass gathering as a new discipline Maurizio Barbeschi Abstract (pdf) Presentation (pdf)
    16:30-17:00 Mass gathering multidisciplinary planning for London 2012 Brian McCloskey Abstract (pdf) Presentation (pdf)
    17:00-17:30 Disease surveillance during mass gatherings Bonnie Henry Abstract (pdf) Presentation (pdf)

    Monday October 25, 2010
    Session IX: Injury and environmental health during mass gatherings

    08:00-08:30 Heat stroke and mass gatherings Abderrezak Bouchama Abstract (pdf) Presentation (pdf)
    08:30-09:00 From injury to mass casualty in mass gatherings Robert Steffen Abstract (pdf) Presentation (pdf)
    09:00-09:30 Crowd control in mass gatherings Anders Johansson Abstract (pdf) Presentation (pdf)
    Session X: Information technology and research priorities during mass gatherings
    10:30-11:00 Global populations mobility around mass gatherings Kamran Khan Abstract (pdf) Presentation (pdf)
    11:00-11:30 Information technology and global surveillance Rumi Chunara Presentation (pdf) Presentation (pdf)
    11:30-12:00 Research priorities for mass gathering risk communication

    BibTeX:
    @conference{Lancet2010,,
      booktitle = {The Lancet Conferences -- Mass gathering medicine},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://conferences.thelancet.com/massgatherings/content/presentations}
    }
    					
    Guidelinesconcerts2009 Guidelines for concerts, events and organized gatherings 2009   techreport 2011.06.24
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Guidelinesconcerts2009,,
      title = {Guidelines for concerts, events and organized gatherings},
      year = {2009},
      url = {http://www.rgl.wa.gov.au/ResourceFiles/Publications/EventsGuide2009.pdf}
    }
    					
    Leeds2009 University of Leeds Losing Sight Of People In A Crowd Can Spell Disaster, Warns New Report 2009 ScienceDaily  electronic 2013.02.02
    BibTeX:
    @electronic{Leeds2009,,
      title = {Losing Sight Of People In A Crowd Can Spell Disaster, Warns New Report},
      year = {2009},
      url = {http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/07/090710121539.htm}
    }
    					
    Orca2009 Organisation et coordination des secours en cas d’accident majeur ou de catastrophe - Partie 1 : Missions et principes d’organisation et d’engagement 2009   techreport 2011.06.21
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Orca2009,,
      title = {Organisation et coordination des secours en cas d’accident majeur ou de catastrophe -- Partie 1 : Missions et principes d’organisation et d’engagement},
      year = {2009},
      url = {http://www.vd.ch/fileadmin/user_upload/themes/sante_social/services_soins/fichiers_pdf/CMSU/Formation_catastrophe/Dossier_sanitaire_ORCA_partie_I_-_version_definitive_2009.pdf}
    }
    					
    GSSG2008 Department for Culture, Media and Sport Guide to Safety at Sports Grounds 2008   manual 2013.03.17
    BibTeX:
    @manual{GSSG2008,,
      title = {Guide to Safety at Sports Grounds},
      year = {2008},
      edition = {5th edition},
      url = {http://www.safetyatsportsgrounds.org.uk/publications/green-guide}
    }
    					
    WHO2008 Communicable disease alert and response for mass gatherings 2008   techreport 2011.06.25
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{WHO2008,,
      title = {Communicable disease alert and response for mass gatherings},
      year = {2008}
    }
    					
    Doubs2007 Préfecture du Doubs Guide d’organisation des evenements rassemblant du public 2007   manual 2011.07.02
    BibTeX:
    @manual{Doubs2007,,
      title = {Guide d’organisation des evenements rassemblant du public},
      year = {2007},
      url = {http://www.franche-comte.pref.gouv.fr/documents/65504671c40145c9eb94860a4d059ad3/guide-orga-evnmts-1.pdf}
    }
    					
    Queensland2007 Queensland Government Queensland Plan for the Protection of Mass Gatherings and Events from Terrorism 2007   manual 2013.05.25
    BibTeX:
    @manual{Queensland2007,,
      title = {Queensland Plan for the Protection of Mass Gatherings and Events from Terrorism},
      year = {2007},
      url = {http://www.safeguarding.qld.gov.au/library/pdf/queenslandplanfortheprotectionofmassgatheringsandeventsfromterrorism.pdf}
    }
    					
    EFAM2006 The Belgian Red Cross-Flanders European Reference Guide for First Aid Instruction 2006   manual 2013.02.17
    BibTeX:
    @manual{EFAM2006,,
      title = {European Reference Guide for First Aid Instruction},
      year = {2006}
    }
    					
    HAS2006 Haute Autorité de Santé Bases méthodologiques pour l’élaboration de recommandations professionnelles par consensus formalisé 2006   manual 2013.02.03
    BibTeX:
    @manual{HAS2006,,
      title = {Bases méthodologiques pour l’élaboration de recommandations professionnelles par consensus formalisé},
      year = {2006},
      url = {http://www.has-sante.fr/portail/upload/docs/application/pdf/base_methodo_CFE.pdf}
    }
    					
    IAS2006 Interassociation de sauvetage Directives concernant l'organisation des services sanitaires en cas d'accident majeur ou de catastrophe 2006   manual 2011.06.21
    BibTeX:
    @manual{IAS2006,,
      title = {Directives concernant l'organisation des services sanitaires en cas d'accident majeur ou de catastrophe},
      year = {2006},
      url = {http://www.144.ch/cms/upload/imgfile56.pdf}
    }
    					
    ICM_AMU_004 SPF Santé Publique Circulaire ICM/AMU/004 relative au matériel médical minimal recommandé à titre d’équipement des ambulances collaborant à l’Aide médicale urgente (AMU). 2006   standard 2012.03.11
    BibTeX:
    @standard{ICM_AMU_004,,
      title = {Circulaire ICM/AMU/004 relative au matériel médical minimal recommandé à titre d’équipement des ambulances collaborant à l’Aide médicale urgente (AMU).},
      year = {2006}
    }
    					
    RNMSC-DPS Ministère de l'Intérieur français Référentiel National Missions de sécurité Civile 2006   manual 2011.06.21
    BibTeX:
    @manual{RNMSC-DPS,,
      title = {Référentiel National Missions de sécurité Civile},
      year = {2006},
      url = {http://www.interieur.gouv.fr/sections/a_l_interieur/defense_et_securite_civiles/autres_acteurs/associations-securite-civile/missions-securite-civile/d-dps/}
    }
    					
    FEMA2005 Special Events Contingency Planning - Jobs Aids Manual 2005   techreport 2011.06.27
    Review: - Quelques chiffres et informations-clé sur les foules
    - Tableaux d'analyse de risques
    - Check-listes pour la planification dans différents domaines : ticketing, transports, soins médicaux, ...
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{FEMA2005,,
      title = {Special Events Contingency Planning -- Jobs Aids Manual},
      year = {2005},
      url = {http://training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/downloads/is15aSpecialEventsPlanning-JAmanual.pdf}
    }
    					
    IAS2003 Interassociation de Sauvetage Directives pour l'organisation du service sanitaire lors de manifestations 2003   manual 2011.06.21
    BibTeX:
    @manual{IAS2003,,
      title = {Directives pour l'organisation du service sanitaire lors de manifestations},
      year = {2003},
      url = {http://www.144.ch/cms/upload/RL_Veranstaltungen_03_F.pdf}
    }
    					
    EMA1999 Safe and Healthy Mass Gatherings 1999   techreport 2011.06.25
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{EMA1999,,
      title = {Safe and Healthy Mass Gatherings},
      year = {1999},
      url = {http://www.health.sa.gov.au/pehs/publications/ema-mass-gatherings-manual.pdf}
    }
    					
    MIM1999 Atelier d'auto-formation - médecine de catastrophe - analyse des méthodes et pratiques utilisées dans les pays membres de l'Union Européenne 1999   techreport 2011.06.21
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{MIM1999,,
      title = {Atelier d'auto-formation -- médecine de catastrophe -- analyse des méthodes et pratiques utilisées dans les pays membres de l'Union Européenne},
      year = {1999},
      url = {http://ec.europa.eu/echo/civil.../civil/.../major_incident_medicine_fr.pdf}
    }
    					
    ACEP1995 Provision of emergency medical care for crowds 1995   techreport 2011.06.21
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{ACEP1995,,
      title = {Provision of emergency medical care for crowds},
      year = {1995},
      url = {http://www.acep.org/workarea/downloadasset.aspx?id=4846}
    }
    					

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