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Bargues, L., VILLEVIEILLE, T., GODREUIL, C., ROUQUETTE, I. & ROUSSEAU, J.-M. (2001), "Coup de chaleur d’exercice", Urgence Pratique., mai, 2001. Vol. 46, pp. 11-15.
BibTeX:
@article{Bargues2001,
  author = {Laurent Bargues and Thierry VILLEVIEILLE and Christian GODREUIL and Isabelle ROUQUETTE and Jean-Marie ROUSSEAU},
  title = {Coup de chaleur d’exercice},
  journal = {Urgence Pratique},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {46},
  pages = {11-15},
  url = {http://www.urgence-pratique.com/sites/default/files/medias/fichiers/articles/coup_de_chaleur_d_exercice.pdf}
}
Billows, G.L. (2010), "EMS in the fast lane -- Mass-gathering medicine at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway", JEMS -- Supplement : Driving the course care. , pp. 11.
BibTeX:
@article{Billows2010,
  author = {Geoffrey L. Billows},
  title = {EMS in the fast lane -- Mass-gathering medicine at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway},
  journal = {JEMS -- Supplement : Driving the course care},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {11},
  url = {http://www.jems.com/article/major-incidents/ems-fast-lane}
}
Bock, H.C., Cordell, W.H., Hawk, A.C. & Bowdish, G.E. (1992), "Demographics of emergency medical care at the Indianapolis 500 mile race (1983-1990).", Ann Emerg Med.. , pp. 1204-1207.
BibTeX:
@article{Bock1992,
  author = {H. C. Bock and W. H. Cordell and A. C. Hawk and G. E. Bowdish},
  title = {Demographics of emergency medical care at the Indianapolis 500 mile race (1983-1990).},
  journal = {Ann Emerg Med.},
  year = {1992},
  pages = {1204-1207},
  url = {http://www.annemergmed.com/article/S0196-0644(05)81747-0/abstract}
}
Borjesson, M., Dugmore, D., Mellwig, K.-P., van Buuren, F., Serratosa, L., Solberg, E.E. & Pelliccia, A. (2010), "Time for action regarding cardiovascular emergency care at sports arenas: a lesson from the arena study", European Heart Journal.
Abstract: Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is a common cause of death worldwide,
most often triggered by ventricular fibrillation or asystole.1
The estimated prevalence in adult individuals (.35 years) is
about 1 in 1000 per year in the USA.2 The major determinant
for survival in such instances is the time to defibrillation,1 with
the critical interval from the onset of a lethal arrhythmia to subsequent
shock, to restore sinus rhythm, being 3–5 min.2 The efficacy
of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) to prevent SCAs
has been demonstrated in large public settings, such as airports and
casinos3,4 and their implementation in other crowded venues has
also been advocated.5
Large sports arenas typically gather several thousands of spectators,
including adult and senior individuals with risk factor for
cardiac events, repeatedly exposed to intense emotion.6 Although
much attention is put on the athletes on the field, most cases of
SCA in this setting will occur among spectators, and simply watching
(emotional) sports events has been demonstrated to trigger
cardiac events.7
The National Association of Emergency Medical Services Physicians
(NAEMSP) recommends a medical action plan (MAP),
including AEDs, as a blue-print for delivering emergency medical
care at mass gathering events (e.g. more than 1000 persons).8 In
the USA, moreover, AEDs are recommended in large sports facilities
and gyms, and also in the school setting when the time to defibrillation
exceeds the critical threshold of 5 min.9,10 On the
contrary, no recommendations regarding acute cardiovascular
care at sports arenas exist at present in Europe, and the current
implementation of medical action plans (including AEDs) in
major continental sports arenas is largely unknown.
BibTeX:
@article{Borjesson2010,
  author = {Borjesson, Mats and Dugmore, Dorian and Mellwig, Klaus-Peter and van Buuren, Frank and Serratosa, Luis and Solberg, Eric E. and Pelliccia, Antonio},
  title = {Time for action regarding cardiovascular emergency care at sports arenas: a lesson from the arena study},
  journal = {European Heart Journal},
  year = {2010},
  url = {http://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2010/03/02/eurheartj.ehq006.short},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehq006}
}
Borjesson, M., Serratosa, L., Carre, F., Corrado, D., Drezner, J., Dugmore, D.L., Heidbuchel, H.H., Mellwig, K.-P., Panhuyzen-Goedkoop, N.M., Papadakis, M., Rasmusen, H., Sharma, S., Solberg, E.E., van Buuren, F. & Pelliccia, A. (2011), "Consensus document regarding cardiovascular safety at sports arenas", European Heart Journal., June, 2011. Vol. 32(17), pp. 2119-2124.
Abstract: Mass gathering events in sports arenas create challenges regarding the cardiovascular safety of both athletes and spectators. A comprehensive medical action plan, to ensure properly applied cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and wide availability and use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs), is essential to improving survival from sudden cardiac arrest at sporting events. This paper outlines minimum standards for cardiovascular care to assist in the planning of mass gathering sports events across Europe with the intention of local adaptation at individual sports arenas, to ensure the full implementation of the chain of survival.
BibTeX:
@article{Borjesson2011,
  author = {Borjesson, Mats and Serratosa, Luis and Carre, Francois and Corrado, Domenico and Drezner, Jonathan and Dugmore, Dorian L. and Heidbuchel, Hein H. and Mellwig, Klaus-Peter and Panhuyzen-Goedkoop, Nicole M. and Papadakis, Michael and Rasmusen, Hanne and Sharma, Sanjay and Solberg, Erik E. and van Buuren, Frank and Pelliccia, Antonio},
  title = {Consensus document regarding cardiovascular safety at sports arenas},
  journal = {European Heart Journal},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {32},
  number = {17},
  pages = {2119-2124},
  url = {http://www.sportmedicine.ru/recomendations/consensus_document_regarding_cardiovascular_safety_at_sports_arenas.pdf},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehr178}
}
Boyer, C., Ammirati, C., Thiebaut, H. & Nemitz, B. (1999), "Couverture médicale des rassemblements de foule : essai de modélisation", Médecine de catastrophe -- urgences collectives. Vol. 2, pp. 24-30.
Abstract: L'objectif de cet article est d'analyser les facteurs de risque et les besoins médicaux pour les rassemblements de plus de 5 000 personnes en France. Une hypothèse sur un nombre d'équipe médical nécessaire pour 10 000 spectateurs en fonction du type d'événement a été avancée à partir d'un calcul ≪ temps-médecin ≫. Pour cela, un questionnaire a été envoyé à tous les Samu et SDIS de France et la littérature a été étudiée ; 179 événements ont été rapportés et analysés. L'étude statistique comparée à celle de la littérature nous a permis d'évaluer le nombre et la gravité des pathologies en fonction du type d'événement et de la quantité de population. II ressort de cette étude que pour un certain nombre d'événements, en particulier le football et les concerts de musique, il est possible de calculer une couverture médicale suffisante et pertinente pour 95 % de l'ensemble des événements, en tenant compte des probabilités de risques médicaux (issues des statistiques), du type de couverture médicale envisagée (médicalisation ou non des postes de secours, présence d'un poste médical avancé et/ou d'un poste de commandement), du temps consacré au tri et à la prise en charge des pathologies. Cette approche objective ne prend pas en compte les risques non connus par le responsable médical et la situation de catastrophe qui peut en découler. Afin d'infirmer ou confirmer ces hypothèses, un observatoire national a été crée à Amiens au Samu 80. Il permettra à partir de fiches types envoyées à tous les Samu et SDIS de France de recueillir des données précises sur les aspects médicaux de chaque rassemblement de foule.
BibTeX:
@article{Boyer1999,
  author = {C. Boyer and C. Ammirati and H. Thiebaut and B. Nemitz},
  title = {Couverture médicale des rassemblements de foule : essai de modélisation},
  journal = {Médecine de catastrophe -- urgences collectives},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {24-30},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/12798479}
}
Brosset, C., ABRIAT, A., SAGUI, E. & BRÉGIGEON, M. (2008), "Coup de chaleur d’exercice : comment le reconnaitre ?", Réanoxyno. Vol. 24, pp. 19-20.
BibTeX:
@article{Brosset2008,
  author = {C Brosset and A ABRIAT and E SAGUI and M BRÉGIGEON},
  title = {Coup de chaleur d’exercice : comment le reconnaitre ?},
  journal = {Réanoxyno},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {24},
  pages = {19-20},
  url = {http://www.carum.org/reanoxyo_24.pdf}
}
Carpentier, J.-P. & Saby, R. (2007), "Coup de chaleur du sportif", Urgence Pratique. Vol. 80, pp. 5-12.
BibTeX:
@article{Carpentier2007,
  author = {Jean-Pierre Carpentier and René Saby},
  title = {Coup de chaleur du sportif},
  journal = {Urgence Pratique},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {80},
  pages = {5-12},
  url = {http://www.urgence-pratique.com/sites/default/files/medias/fichiers/articles/coup_de_chaleur_du_sportif.pdf}
}
Chang, W.-H., Chang, K.-S., Huang, C.-S., Huang, M.-Y., Chien, D.-K. & Tsai, C.-H. (2010), "Mass Gathering Emergency Medicine: A Review of the Taiwan Experience of Long-distance Swimming Across Sun-Moon Lake", June, 2010. Vol. 4(2), pp. 53-68.
BibTeX:
@article{Chang2010,
  author = {Chang, Wen-Han and Chang, Kuo-Song and Huang, Chien-Shuan and Huang, Ming-Yuan and Chien, Ding-Kuo and Tsai, Cheng-Ho},
  title = {Mass Gathering Emergency Medicine: A Review of the Taiwan Experience of Long-distance Swimming Across Sun-Moon Lake},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {4},
  number = {2},
  pages = {53--68},
  url = {http://www.sgecm.org.tw/db/Jour/2/201006/1.pdf}
}
Corrado, D. & Thiene, G. (2011), "Sudden cardiac death in marathon runners: can it be prevented?", European Heart Journal., nov, 2011. Vol. 32(21)
BibTeX:
@article{Corrado2011,
  author = {D. Corrado and G. Thiene},
  title = {Sudden cardiac death in marathon runners: can it be prevented?},
  journal = {European Heart Journal},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {32},
  number = {21}
}
Deakin, C.D., Thompson, F., Gibson, C. & Green, M. (2007), "Effects of international football matches on ambulance call profiles and volumes during the 2006 World Cup", Emergency Medicine Journal : EMJ., June, 2007. Vol. 24(6), pp. 405-407.
BibTeX:
@article{Deakin2007,
  author = {Deakin, Charles D and Thompson, Fizz and Gibson, Caroline and Green, Mark},
  title = {Effects of international football matches on ambulance call profiles and volumes during the 2006 World Cup},
  journal = {Emergency Medicine Journal : EMJ},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {24},
  number = {6},
  pages = {405--407},
  note = {PMID: 17513536 PMCID: 2658274},
  url = {http://en.scientificcommons.org/57892678},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emj.2007.046920}
}
Dvorak, J., Grimm, K., Constantinou, D., Kramer, E. & Motaung, S. (2010), "Football Emergency Medicine Manual"
BibTeX:
@manual{Dvorak2010,
  author = {J. Dvorak and K. Grimm and D. Constantinou and E. Kramer and S. Motaung},
  title = {Football Emergency Medicine Manual},
  year = {2010},
  url = {http://www.bcsoccer.net/Portals/0/Member/file_downloads/Documents/Coaches/Soccer%20Science/FIFA%20Emergency%20Manual.pdf}
}
Fontanetta, J. (2011), "Extending the Emergency Department to the Arena", Healthcare Informatics. Vol. 28(4), pp. 21-22.
BibTeX:
@article{Fontanetta2011,
  author = {John Fontanetta},
  title = {Extending the Emergency Department to the Arena},
  journal = {Healthcare Informatics},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {28},
  number = {4},
  pages = {21-22},
  url = {http://www.healthcare-informatics.com/me2/dirmod.asp?sid=9B6FFC446FF7486981EA3C0C3CCE4943&nm=Articles%2FNews&type=Publishing&mod=Publications%3A%3AArticle&mid=8F3A7027421841978F18BE895F87F791&tier=4&id=79BE8C89BD5E4F429A057214EDBBFE3E}
}
Gevrey, M. (2012), "Seulement 13 accidents CV pour 512 000 coureurs de longue distance dans RACE", theheart.org., website : theheart.org.
BibTeX:
@electronic{Gevrey2012,
  author = {Muriel Gevrey},
  title = {Seulement 13 accidents CV pour 512 000 coureurs de longue distance dans RACE},
  journal = {theheart.org},
  year = {2012},
  url = {http://www.theheart.org/fr/article/1371795.do}
}
Gutman, S.J., Lund, A. & Turris, S.A. (2011), "Medical Support for the 2009 World Police and Fire Games: A Descriptive Analysis of a Large-Scale Participation Event and Its Impact", Prehosp Disaster Med. Vol. 26(01), pp. 33-40.
BibTeX:
@article{Gutman2011,
  author = {Gutman, Samuel J. and Lund, Adam and Turris, Sheila A.},
  title = {Medical Support for the 2009 World Police and Fire Games: A Descriptive Analysis of a Large-Scale Participation Event and Its Impact},
  journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {26},
  number = {01},
  pages = {33--40},
  url = {http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8235578&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S1049023X10000117},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1049023X10000117}
}
Hardcastle (2010), "The Moses Mabhida Medical Plan: medical care planning and execution at a FIFA2010 stadium; the Durban experience", Open Access Emergency Medicine. Vol. 2, pp. 91-97.
Abstract: Aim: This paper aims to outline the medical services provided at the Moses Mabhida Stadium,
Durban, South Africa for the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) 2010
Soccer World Cup and audit the clinical services delivered to persons seeking medical
assistance.
Methods: Descriptive report of the medical facilities at the Moses Mabhida Stadium including
the staff deployment. Retrospective data review of medical incident reports from the Stadium
Medical Team.
Results: Medical staffing exceeded the local norms and was satisfactory to provide rapid intervention
for all incoming patients. Senior medical presence decreased the transport to hospital
rate (TTHR). A total of 316 spectators or support staff were treated during the seven matches
played at the stadium. The majority of patients were male (60%), mostly of local origin, with
mostly minor complaints that were treated and discharged (88.2% Green codes). The most
common complaints were headache, abdominal disorders, and soft-tissue injuries. One fatality
was recorded. The patient presentation rate (PPR) was 0.66/10,000 and the TTHR was overall
4.1% of all treated patients (0.027/10,000 spectators).
Conclusion: There was little evidence to guide medical planning for staffing from the FIFA
governing body. Most patients are treated and released in accordance with international literature,
leading to low TTHR rates, while PPR was in line with international experience. Headache
was the most common medical complaint. The blowing of Vuvuzelas® may have influenced
the high headache rate
BibTeX:
@article{Hardcastle2010,
  author = {Hardcastle},
  title = {The Moses Mabhida Medical Plan: medical care planning and execution at a FIFA2010 stadium; the Durban experience},
  journal = {Open Access Emergency Medicine},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {91-97},
  url = {http://www.dovepress.com/the-moses-mabhida-medical-plan-medical-care-planning-and-execution-at--peer-reviewed-article-OAEM}
}
Hawkins, E.R. & Brice, J.H. (2010), "Fire Jumpers: Description of Burns and Traumatic Injuries from a Spontaneous Mass Gathering and Celebratory Riot", The Journal of emergency medicine., feb, 2010. Vol. 38(2), pp. 182-187.
Abstract: Background: On April 3 and 5 of 2005, approximately 52,000 people gathered in Chapel Hill, North Carolina to celebrate the National Collegiate Athletic Association Final Four victories of the University of North Carolina men's basketball team. As crowds rejoiced and intensified into a celebratory riot, many participants lit dozens of bonfires and expressed themselves by jumping through the flames. Objective: To describe the interesting injury mechanism of celebratory fire jumping and to describe the injuries associated with two celebratory riots. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study analyzing all Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and hospital reports of injuries associated with each gathering. We used a standardized data collection instrument to record descriptive information on all patients with celebration-associated complaints and noted their treatment and disposition. For analysis, we abstracted data and generated basic descriptive statistics and comparisons of groups. Results: A total of 58 celebrants received medical care, including 27 patients first evaluated by EMS and 49 patients subsequently evaluated in the Emergency Department. Most were young (average age = 23.8 years), male (65%, 32/49), had complaints associated with alcohol (65%, 32/49), and were not admitted to the hospital (92%, 45/49). Of those presenting for hospital evaluation, 30% (15/49) had burns associated with fire-jumping. Conclusions: Most patients from these gatherings had relatively minor injuries or medical complaints. However, burns associated with fire-jumping represented a substantial proportion of more serious injuries and hospitalizations. These cases are presented to increase awareness of the burn injuries associated with this type of celebratory mass gathering.
BibTeX:
@article{Hawkins2010,
  author = {Eric R. Hawkins and Jane H. Brice},
  title = {Fire Jumpers: Description of Burns and Traumatic Injuries from a Spontaneous Mass Gathering and Celebratory Riot},
  journal = {The Journal of emergency medicine},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {38},
  number = {2},
  pages = {182-187},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2008.08.028}
}
Herring, S.A., Bergfeld, J.A., Boyajian-O’Neill, L.A., Indelicato, P., Jaffe, R., Kibler, W.B., O’Connor, F.G., Pallay, R., Roberts, W.O., Stockard, A., Taft, T.N., Williams, J. & Young, C.C. (2004), "Mass Participation Event Management for the Team Physician: A Consensus Statement", Medicine & Science In Sports & Exercise. Vol. 36(11)
Abstract: This document provides an overview of select medical issues that are important to team physicians who are
responsible for mass participation event management. It is not intended as a standard of care, and should not be
interpreted as such. This document is only a guide, and as such, is of a general nature, consistent with the
reasonable, objective practice of the healthcare professional. Individual treatment will turn on the specific facts and
circumstances presented to the physician. Adequate insurance should be in place to help protect the physician, the
athlete, and the sponsoring organization.
This statement was developed by a collaboration of six major professional associations concerned about clinical
sports medicine issues; they have committed to forming an ongoing project-based alliance to bring together sports
medicine organizations to best serve active people and athletes. The organizations are: American Academy of
Family Physicians, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, American College of Sports Medicine, American
Medical Society for Sports Medicine, American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, and the American
Osteopathic Academy of Sports Medicine.
BibTeX:
@article{Herring2004,
  author = {Stanley A. Herring and John A. Bergfeld and Lori A. Boyajian-O’Neill and Peter Indelicato and Rebecca Jaffe and W. Ben Kibler and Francis G. O’Connor and Robert Pallay and William O. Roberts and Alan Stockard and Timothy N. Taft and James Williams and Craig C. Young},
  title = {Mass Participation Event Management for the Team Physician: A Consensus Statement},
  journal = {Medicine & Science In Sports & Exercise},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {36},
  number = {11},
  url = {http://www.aafp.org/online/en/home/clinical/publichealth/sportsmed/team-physician-consensus-statements.html#Parsys18022.8}
}
Keane, J.W.G., Fisher, N. & Leditschke, J. (2000), "Cardiac arrest outcomes at the Melbourne Cricket Ground and Shrine of Remembrance using a tiered response strategy-a forerunner to public access defibrillation", Resuscitation. Vol. 44, pp. 97-104.
BibTeX:
@article{Keane2000,
  author = {J. Wassertheil G. Keane and N. Fisher and J.F. Leditschke},
  title = {Cardiac arrest outcomes at the Melbourne Cricket Ground and Shrine of Remembrance using a tiered response strategy-a forerunner to public access defibrillation},
  journal = {Resuscitation},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {44},
  pages = {97-104}
}
Khorram-Manesh, A., Berner, A., Hedelin, A. & Ortenwall, P. (2010), "Estimation of healthcare resources at sporting events", Prehosp Disaster Med., October, 2010. Vol. 25(5), pp. 449-455.
Abstract: BACKGROUND The consequences of a major incident at a sporting event could be catastrophic. Therefore, there should be an estimation of the healthcare resources at such events as part of the planning. Although there are National guidelines (e.g., Planning Safe Public Events: Practical Guidelines in Australia) defining the role of the healthcare system at sporting events, these guidelines either lack a simple calculating method to estimate the need for healthcare resources or the methods are complex and impractical to use. The objective of this study was to find a safe and easy method for the estimation of healthcare resources at sporting events. METHODS A model for the estimation of healthcare resources at music events recently has been approved in Sweden. After minor adjustments, this model was used at sport events by a number of planning officers. The models' accuracy and usability was evaluated by analyzing its outcome in a pilot and a controlled study using different sporting and non-sporting scenarios. RESULTS The pilot study showed that the model was valid and easily could be used for various sporting events. The obtained estimations were consistent with the methods used by experienced planning officers in 97% of cases. The results of the controlled study showed that by using this model, the minimum amount of resources required easily could be calculated at sporting events and by people with different backgrounds. CONCLUSIONS This model safely can be used at sporting events.
BibTeX:
@article{Khorram-Manesh2010,
  author = {Khorram-Manesh, Amir and Berner, A and Hedelin, A and Ortenwall, P},
  title = {Estimation of healthcare resources at sporting events},
  journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {25},
  number = {5},
  pages = {449--455},
  note = {PMID: 21053195},
  url = {http://pdm.medicine.wisc.edu/Volume_25/issue_5/khorram-manesh.pdf}
}
Kilian, A. & Stretch, R.A. (2006), "Analysis of patient load data from the 2003 Cricket World Cup in South Africa", SAJSM. Vol. 18, pp. 52-56.
BibTeX:
@article{Kilian2006,
  author = {A. Kilian and R. A. Stretch},
  title = {Analysis of patient load data from the 2003 Cricket World Cup in South Africa},
  journal = {SAJSM},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {18},
  pages = {52-56},
  url = {http://www.sajsm.org.za/index.php/sajsm/article/viewFile/38/38}
}
Kim, J.H., Malhotra, R., Chiampas, G., d'Hemecourt, P., Troyanos, C., Cianca, J., Smith, R.N., Wang, T.J., Roberts, W.O. & Baggish, P.D.T.A.L. (2012), "Cardiac Arrest during Long-Distance Running Races", N Engl J Med. Vol. 366, pp. 130-140.
Abstract: Approximately 2 million people participate in long-distance running races in the United States annually. Reports of race-related cardiac arrests have generated concern about the safety of this activity.

Methods
We assessed the incidence and outcomes of cardiac arrest associated with marathon and half-marathon races in the United States from January 1, 2000, to May 31, 2010. We determined the clinical characteristics of the arrests by interviewing survivors and the next of kin of nonsurvivors, reviewing medical records, and analyzing postmortem data.

Results
Of 10.9 million runners, 59 (mean [±SD] age, 42±13 years; 51 men) had cardiac arrest (incidence rate, 0.54 per 100,000 participants; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41 to 0.70). Cardiovascular disease accounted for the majority of cardiac arrests. The incidence rate was significantly higher during marathons (1.01 per 100,000; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.38) than during half-marathons (0.27; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.43) and among men (0.90 per 100,000; 95% CI, 0.67 to 1.18) than among women (0.16; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.31). Male marathon runners, the highest-risk group, had an increased incidence of cardiac arrest during the latter half of the study decade (2000–2004, 0.71 per 100,000 [95% CI, 0.31 to 1.40]; 2005–2010, 2.03 per 100,000 [95% CI, 1.33 to 2.98]; P=0.01). Of the 59 cases of cardiac arrest, 42 (71%) were fatal (incidence, 0.39 per 100,000; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.52). Among the 31 cases with complete clinical data, initiation of bystander-administered cardiopulmonary resuscitation and an underlying diagnosis other than hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were the strongest predictors of survival.

Conclusions
Marathons and half-marathons are associated with a low overall risk of cardiac arrest and sudden death. Cardiac arrest, most commonly attributable to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or atherosclerotic coronary disease, occurs primarily among male marathon participants; the incidence rate in this group increased during the past decade.

Dr. Roberts reports holding a board membership with UCare Minnesota, receiving writing fees from Runner's World, and serving as an unpaid, volunteer medical director for the Medtronic Twin Cities Marathon; and Dr. Thompson, receiving consulting fees from Regeneron, Furiex Pharmaceuticals, and Lupin Pharmaceuticals, legal fees for expert testimony in cases related to cardiac arrest in exercise- and statin-related muscle injury, grant funding from GlaxoSmithKline, Genomas, Novartis, Furiex Pharmaceuticals, B. Braun, and Aventis, lecture fees from Merck, Pfizer, AstraZeneca, Kowa, Abbott, and GlaxoSmithKline, support for the development of educational presentations from Merck, and holding stock in Zoll Medical, J.A. Wiley Publishing, General Electric, Zimmer, Medtronic, Johnson & Johnson, Sanofi-Aventis, and Abbott.

Disclosure forms provided by the authors are available with the full text of this article at NEJM.org.

No other potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

We thank Ryan Lamppa at Running USA for providing race-participation numbers; Deborah McDonald for her assistance with participant correspondence and data retrieval; and, most important, the cardiac-arrest survivors and the families of deceased runners for helping us obtain the data necessary for this study

BibTeX:
@article{Kim2012,
  author = {Jonathan H. Kim and Rajeev Malhotra and George Chiampas and Pierre d'Hemecourt and Chris Troyanos and John Cianca and Rex N. Smith and Thomas J. Wang and William O. Roberts and Paul D. Thompsonand Aaron L. Baggish},
  title = {Cardiac Arrest during Long-Distance Running Races},
  journal = {N Engl J Med},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {366},
  pages = {130-140},
  note = {(for the Race Associated Cardiac Arrest Event Registry (RACER) Study Group)},
  url = {http://associationdatabase.com/aws/SCAA/asset_manager/get_file/42726/study_on_sca_marathonnejm2012.pdf}
}
Korsten, A.F.A. (), "Het Heizeldrama -- Tekortkomingen in de organisatie en voorbereiding van de wedstrijd als oorzaak?"
Review: Une analyse des causes du drame du Heizel, en termes de problèmes d'organisation, ainsi qu'une courte bibliographie.
BibTeX:
@electronic{Korsten,
  author = {A. F. A. Korsten},
  title = {Het Heizeldrama -- Tekortkomingen in de organisatie en voorbereiding van de wedstrijd als oorzaak?},
  note = {consulté le 8 aout 2011},
  url = {www.arnokorsten.nl/PDF/Crises/Het%20Heizeldrama.pdf}
}
Kramer, E.B. (2008), "Football emergency medicine", CME. Vol. 28, pp. 208-212.
BibTeX:
@article{Kramer2010,
  author = {Efraim B Kramer},
  title = {Football emergency medicine},
  journal = {CME},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {28},
  pages = {208-212}
}
Lekka, C., Webster, J. & Corbett, C.E. (2010), "A literature review of the health and safety risks associated with major sporting events -- Learning lessons for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic games" (RR811)
Abstract: This work was commissioned by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) to provide an understanding of the potential hazards and risks associated with hosting the Olympic Games in Great Britain in 2012, as well as potential control measures that could be applied to these. The literature search yielded 384 papers, of which 80 met the inclusion criteria. These papers were then reviewed by the research team and summarised by emergent topics. The topics included: construction, public health and safety risks, road accidents, injuries, musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), crowd safety, emergency planning and response, volunteers, workplace violence, fire safety, electrical hazards and carbon monoxide/gas safety.
Each of the topics is summarised by the risks identified from previous Olympic events and major sporting events, followed by controls that were applied or identified as potentially useful. The controls often provided practical ways to reduce risks, or to mitigate negative outcomes.
BibTeX:
@techreport{Lekka2010,
  author = {Chrysanthi Lekka and Jennifer Webster and CPsychol Edward Corbett},
  title = {A literature review of the health and safety risks associated with major sporting events -- Learning lessons for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic games},
  year = {2010},
  number = {RR811},
  url = {http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr811.pdf}
}
Leusveld, E., Kleijn, S. & Umans, V.A.W.M. (2008), "Usefulness of Emergency Medical Teams in Sport Stadiums", The American Journal of Cardiology. Vol. 101(5), pp. 712-714.
BibTeX:
@article{Leusveld2008,
  author = {E. Leusveld and S. Kleijn and V. A. W. M. Umans},
  title = {Usefulness of Emergency Medical Teams in Sport Stadiums},
  journal = {The American Journal of Cardiology},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {101},
  number = {5},
  pages = {712-714}
}
Lewis, J.M. (1989), "A value-added analysis of the Heysel Stadium soccer riot", Current Psychology., March, 1989. Vol. 8(1), pp. 15-29.
Abstract: On May 29, 1985, a riot occurred at the European Cup Final soccer championship between Liverpool and Juventus at Heysel Stadium in Brussels, Belgium. The riot, which caused the death of thirty-nine soccer fans, had a profound effect on English society as well as on professional soccer. This essay uses Smelser's 0962) general model of collective behavior to analyze data derived from a number of sources describing the Heysel Stadium riot. In particular, this analysis focuses on a period of four hours, from the beginning of the riot at about 7:30 p.m. until the conclusion of the match around 11:30 p.m.
BibTeX:
@article{Lewis1989,
  author = {Lewis, Jerry M.},
  title = {A value-added analysis of the Heysel Stadium soccer riot},
  journal = {Current Psychology},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {8},
  number = {1},
  pages = {15--29},
  url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/aw10162650175323/},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02686734}
}
Lorenzo, R.A.D., Boyle, M.F. & Garrison, R. (1993), "A Proposed Model for a Residency Experience in Mass Gathering Medicine: The United States Air Show", Ann Emerg Med. Vol. 22, pp. 68-71.
BibTeX:
@article{Lorenzo1993,
  author = {Robert A De Lorenzo and Michael F Boyle and Richard Garrison},
  title = {A Proposed Model for a Residency Experience in Mass Gathering Medicine: The United States Air Show},
  journal = {Ann Emerg Med},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {22},
  pages = {68-71}
}
Madzimbamuto, F.D. (2003), "A hospital response to a soccer stadium stampede in Zimbabwe", Emerg Med J. Vol. 20, pp. 556-559.
BibTeX:
@article{Madzimbamuto2003,
  author = {F. D. Madzimbamuto},
  title = {A hospital response to a soccer stadium stampede in Zimbabwe},
  journal = {Emerg Med J},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {20},
  pages = {556-559},
  url = {http://emj.bmj.com/content/20/6/556.full.pdf+html}
}
MARION, R., PAPET, F., CHIEZE, F., SAUX, Y.L. & HAN, D. (2008), "Evaluation du dispositif de sécurité mis en place pour la coupe du monde de rugby 2007"
Abstract: secours-santé spécifique et pléthorique (assurée par la
fédération nationale de la mutualité française) dont l’articulation avec le dispositif
« traditionnel » de secours-santé aurait été, en cas de besoin, difficile.
Les fonctions de coordination ont connu des difficultés en administration centrale. Les
circulaires relatives à l’événement tant du ministère de l’intérieur que du ministère de la santé
sont intervenues trop tardivement pour être pleinement utiles. La planification de la plus
grande part du dispositif de l’Etat a été assurée par les services déconcentrés sous l’autorité du
préfet.
La mission n’a pas été en mesure de porter un jugement sur le caractère suffisant du niveau
d’indemnisation de l’Etat au titre des services d’ordre assurés au bénéfice de l’organisateur.
En revanche, la mission s’est intéressée au coût global pour l’Etat de la coupe du monde de
rugby. Celui-ci est important. La mission a ainsi fourni une estimation de la charge pour les
forces de police et de gendarmerie nationales de l’événement et s’est appuyée sur les travaux
du ministère des sports pour chiffrer les autres dépenses de soutien à l’événement.
La mission s’est enfin intéressée aux relations financières entre l’Etat et le comité
d’organisation de la coupe du monde de rugby.
Elles apparaissent déséquilibrées. Ainsi alors que l’Etat aurait pris en charge près de la moitié
des éventuelles pertes d’exploitation, il n’a en revanche rien reçu des bénéfices réalisés en
application de clauses qu’il a lui-même approuvées en octobre 2004 (article 24 de la
convention constitutive du groupement d’intérêt public « coupe du monde de rugby 2007 ») et
en février 2005 (article 8 du règlement financier du GIP « coupe du monde de rugby 2007 »).
Ainsi, l’intégralité des plus de 30 millions d’euros de bénéfices de la coupe du monde de
rugby a été dévolue à la fédération française de rugby, cette dernière devant les employer en
3
faveur du « développement du rugby ». L’Etat ne dispose pas de leviers d’action sur
l’utilisation de cette somme exceptionnelle.
Ce partage asymétrique est pour le moins étonnant. L’Etat a fourni des moyens matériels et
humains et a assumé un risque financier mais n’est en rien associé aux éventuels résultats
positifs de l’exercice.
La mission estime, à tout le moins, que ce type de montage est à proscrire pour l’avenir.
La politique de soutien au développement du sport ne peut passer que par des relations
équilibrées entre la puissance publique et les fédérations sportives nationales.
BibTeX:
@techreport{MARION2008,
  author = {Roger MARION and Frédéric PAPET and and François CHIEZE and Yannick LE SAUX and Dominique HAN},
  title = {Evaluation du dispositif de sécurité mis en place pour la coupe du monde de rugby 2007},
  year = {2008},
  url = {http://www.interieur.gouv.fr/sections/a_votre_service/publications/rapports-iga/secu-civile-prev-risques/08-029-01/downloadFile/attachedFile/08-029-01_-_Coupe_du_monde_de_rugby.pdf?nocache=1288771764.1}
}
McCloskey, B. (2010), "Mass gathering multidisciplinary planning for London 2012", In The Lancet Conferences -- Mass gathering medicine. Jeddah. oct 2010.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{McCloskey2010,
  author = {Brian McCloskey},
  title = {Mass gathering multidisciplinary planning for London 2012},
  booktitle = {The Lancet Conferences -- Mass gathering medicine},
  year = {2010},
  url = {http://conferences.thelancet.com/sites/massgatherings/files/presentations/mccloskey.pdf}
}
Millán, E.M., Quintero, F.B. & Ruiz, M.J.E. (2001), "Planificación y gestión de la cobertura sanitaria y de salud pública en acontecimientos deportivos", Emergencias y catastrofes. Vol. 2(3), pp. 145-155.
BibTeX:
@article{Millan2001,
  author = {E. Moreno Millán and F. Bonilla Quintero and M. J. Escalante Ruiz},
  title = {Planificación y gestión de la cobertura sanitaria y de salud pública en acontecimientos deportivos},
  journal = {Emergencias y catastrofes},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {2},
  number = {3},
  pages = {145-155},
  url = {http://www.medynet.com/usuarios/jraguilar/Planificacion%20y%20gestion%20de.pdf}
}
Milsten, A.M., Seaman, K.G., Liu, P., Bissell, R.A. & Maguire, B.J. (2003), "Variables Influencing Medical Usage Rates, Injury Patterns, and Levels of Care for Mass Gatherings", Prehosp Disaster Med. Vol. 18(4), pp. 334-346.
Abstract: Abstract
Objectives: Mass gatherings create difficult environments for which to plan
emergency medical responses. The purpose of this study was to identify
those variables that are associated with increased medical usage rates
(MURs) and certain injury patterns that can be used to facilitate the planning
process.
Methods: Patient information collected at three types of mass gatherings
(professional American football and baseball games and rock concerts) over
a three-year period was reviewed retrospectively. Specific variables were
abstracted: (1) event type; (2) gender; (3) age; (4) weather; and (5) attendance.
All 216 events (total attendance 9,708,567) studied were held in the
same metropolitan region. All MURs are reported as patients per 10,000
(PPTT).
Results: The 5,899 patient encounters yielded a MUR of 6.1 PPTT. Patient
encounters totaled 3,659 for baseball games (4.85 PPTT), 1,204 for football
games (6.75 PPTT), and 1,036 for rock concerts (30 PPTT). The MUR for
Location A concerts (no mosh pits) was 7.49 PPTT, whereas the MUR for
the one Location B concert (with mosh pits) was 110 PPTT. The MUR for
Location A concerts was higher than for baseball, but not football games (p
= 0.005). Gender distribution was equal among patrons seeking medical
care. The mean values for patient ages were 29 years at baseball games, 33
years at football games, and 20 years at concerts. The MUR at events held
when the apparent temperature was £80°F significantly lower statistically
than that at events conducted at temperatures <80°F were (18°C) (4.90 vs.
8.10 PPTT (p = 0.005)). The occurrence of precipitation and increased
attendance did not predict an increased MUR. Medical care was sought
mostly for minor/basic-level care (84%) and less so for advanced-level care
(16%). Medical cases occurred more often at sporting events (69%), and
were more common than were cases with traumatic injuries (31%). Concerts
with precipitation and rock concerts had a positive association with the incidence
of trauma and the incidence of injuries; whereas age and gender were
not associated with medical or traumatic diagnoses.
Conclusions: Event type and apparent temperature were the variables that
best predicted MUR as well as specific injury patterns and levels of care.
BibTeX:
@article{Milsten2003,
  author = {Andrew M. Milsten and Kevin G. Seaman and Peter Liu and Rick A. Bissell and Brain J. Maguire},
  title = {Variables Influencing Medical Usage Rates, Injury Patterns, and Levels of Care for Mass Gatherings},
  journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {18},
  number = {4},
  pages = {334-346},
  url = {http://pdm.medicine.wisc.edu/Volume_18/issue_4/milsten.pdf}
}
Moore, R., Williamson, K., Sochor, M. & Bradys, W.J. (2011), "Large-event medicine -- event characteristics impacting medical need", Am J Emerg Medicine. Vol. 29, pp. 1217-1221.
BibTeX:
@article{Moore2011,
  author = {Riley Moore and Kelly Williamson and Mark Sochor and William J. Bradys},
  title = {Large-event medicine -- event characteristics impacting medical need},
  journal = {Am J Emerg Medicine},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {29},
  pages = {1217-1221},
  url = {http://www.ajemjournal.com/article/S0735-6757(10)00384-0/abstract}
}
Morimura, N., Katsumi, A., Koido, Y., Sugimoto, K., Fuse, A., Asai, Y., Ishii, N., Ishihara, T., Fujii, C., Sugiyama, M., Henmi, H. & Yamamoto, Y. (2004), "Analysis of patient load data from the 2002 FIFA World Cup Korea/Japan", Prehosp Disaster Med. Vol. 19, pp. 278-284.
BibTeX:
@article{Morimura2004,
  author = {N. Morimura and A. Katsumi and Y. Koido and K. Sugimoto and A. Fuse and Y. Asai and N. Ishii and T. Ishihara and C. Fujii and M. Sugiyama and H. Henmi and Y. Yamamoto},
  title = {Analysis of patient load data from the 2002 FIFA World Cup Korea/Japan},
  journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {19},
  pages = {278-284},
  url = {http://pdm.medicine.wisc.edu/Volume_19/issue_3/morimura.pdf}
}
Nguyen, R.B., Milsten, A.M. & Cushman, J.T. (2008), "Injury patterns and levels of care at a marathon", Prehosp Disaster Med., December, 2008. Vol. 23(6), pp. 519-525.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION Marathons pose many challenges to event planners. The medical services needed at such events have not received extensive coverage in the literature. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to document injury patterns and medical usage at a category III mass gathering (a marathon), with the goal of helping event planners organize medical resources for large public gatherings. METHODS Prospectively obtained medical care reports from the five first-aid stations set up along the marathon route were reviewed. Primary and secondary reasons for seeking medical care were categorized. Weather data were obtained, and ambient temperature was recorded. RESULTS The numbers of finishers were as follows: 4,837 in the marathon (3,099 males, 1,738 females), 814 in the 5K race (362 males, 452 females), and 393 teams in the four-person relay (1,572). Two hundred fifty-one runners sought medical care. The day's temperatures ranged from 39 to 73 degrees F (mean, 56 degrees F). The primary reasons for seeking medical were medication request (26, musculoskeletal injuries (18, dehydration (14, and dermal injuries (11. Secondary reasons were musculoskeletal injuries (34, dizziness (19, dermal injuries (11, and headaches (9. Treatment times ranged from 3 to 25.5 minutes and lengthened as the day progressed. Two-thirds of those who sought medical care did so at the end of the race. The majority of runners who sought medical attention had not run a marathon before. CONCLUSIONS Marathon planners should allocate medical resources in favor of the halfway point and the final first-aid station. Resources and medical staff should be moved from the earlier tents to further augment the later first-aid stations before the majority of racers reach the middle- and later-distance stations.
BibTeX:
@article{Nguyen2008,
  author = {Nguyen, Richard B and Milsten, Andrew M and Cushman, Jeremy T},
  title = {Injury patterns and levels of care at a marathon},
  journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {23},
  number = {6},
  pages = {519--525},
  note = {PMID: 19557968},
  url = {http://pdm.medicine.wisc.edu/Volume_23/issue_6/nguyen.pdf}
}
Piat, S.C., Minniti, D., Traversi, D., Gianino, M.M., Massazza, G. & Siliquini, R. (2010), "Torino 2006 Winter Olympic Games: Highlight on Health Services Organization", The Journal of Emergency Medicine., October, 2010. Vol. 39(4), pp. 454-461.
Abstract: Abstract
Introduction: In the summer of 2009, British Columbia hosted the World Police and Fire
Games (WPFG). The event brought together 10,599 athletes from 55 countries. In this
descriptive, Canadian study, the composition of the medical team is analyzed, the unique
challenges faced are discussed, and an analysis of the illness and injury rates is presented.
This event occurred during a labor dispute affecting the sole provider of emergency ambulance
service in the jurisdiction, which necessitated additional planning and resource allocation.
As such, the context of this event as it relates to the literature on mass gathering
medicine is discussed with a focus on how large-scale public events can impact emergency
services for the community.
Methods: This is a case report study.
Results: There were 1,462 patient encounters. The majority involved musculo-skeletal
injuries (53.8%). The patient presentation rate (PPR) was 109.40/1,000. The medical
transfer rate (MTR) was 2.32/1,000. The ambulance transfer rate (ATR) for the 2009
WPFG was 0.52/1,000. In total, 31 patients were transported to the hospital, the majority
for diagnostic evaluation. Only seven calls were placed to 9-1-1 for emergency ambulance
service.
Conclusions: The 2009 WPFG was a mass-gathering sporting event that presented specific
challenges in relation to medical support. Despite relatively high patient presentation
rates, the widely spread geography of the event, and a reduced ability to depend on
9-1-1 emergency medical services, there was minimal impact on local emergency services.
Adequate planning and preparation is crucial for events that have the potential to degrade
existing public resources and access to emergency health services for participants and the
public at large.
BibTeX:
@article{Piat2010,
  author = {Piat, Simone Chiadò and Minniti, Davide and Traversi, Deborah and Gianino, Maria Michela and Massazza, Giuseppe and Siliquini, Roberta},
  title = {Torino 2006 Winter Olympic Games: Highlight on Health Services Organization},
  journal = {The Journal of Emergency Medicine},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {39},
  number = {4},
  pages = {454--461},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0736467909007537},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/16/j.jemermed.2009.08.028}
}
Reade, J.J. (2007), "Modelling and forecasting football attendances", Oxonomics. Vol. 2, pp. 27-32.
Abstract: Estimating demand functions for football match attendance is increasingly popular, with focus usually on top divisions of national leagues and on groups of teams. Here, demand for one lower division team, Oldham Athletic, is analyzed. General-to-specific model selection is employed to find a model to explain attendances, which is then used to forecast attendances. The model explains and predicts attendances well, and additionally designed forecast combinations provide competitive forecasts due to the possibility of structural breaks.
BibTeX:
@article{Reade2007,
  author = {J. James Reade},
  title = {Modelling and forecasting football attendances},
  journal = {Oxonomics},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {27-32},
  url = {http://www.jamesreade.co.uk/J_James_Reades_Website/Work_files/OxonomicsPaper.pdf}
}
Roberts, W. .O. (2010), "Determining a "do not start" temperature for a marathon on the basis of adverse outcomes", Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. Vol. 42, pp. 226-232.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Marathon races faced with unexpectedly hot conditions must make a decision to start or not to start. The current race cancellation parameters may not reflect the safety profile of an individual race, and a universal temperature may not work an individual race.

METHODS: A retrospective review of the number of starters, finishers, and finish line medical encounters was used to calculate the rate of "unsuccessful" marathon starters from race records, where unsuccessful is defined as medical encounters seen for any reason in the finish medical area plus marathon starters who did not finish. Unsuccessful marathon starters were plotted against the race start wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT), and the WBGT level at which a mass casualty incident (MCI) occurred was used to calculate a "do not start" WBGT.

RESULTS: A start WBGT of >21 degrees C resulted in MCI or midrace cancellation in several races. Twin Cities Marathon data show a rapid increase in the rate of unsuccessful marathoner starters above a start WBGT of 13 degrees C. The event experienced an area-wide MCI at a start WBGT of 22 degrees C with an unsuccessful starter rate of 160 per 1000 finishers.

CONCLUSIONS: Marathons in northern latitudes (>40 degrees) held in "unexpectedly" hot conditions when the participants are not acclimatized and the start WBGT is >21 degrees C often end in either race cancellation or an MCI. It would seem prudent not to start these races in similar conditions. The rate of unsuccessful marathon starters per 1000 marathon finishers plotted against start WBGT generates a curve that can be used to estimate a do not start level. The do not start WBGT for Twin Cities Marathon is 20.5 degrees C on the basis of this model.

BibTeX:
@article{Roberts2010,
  author = {W .O. Roberts},
  title = {Determining a "do not start" temperature for a marathon on the basis of adverse outcomes},
  journal = {Med. Sci. Sports Exerc},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {42},
  pages = {226-232}
}
Roberts, W.O. (2007), "Heat and Cold -- What does the Environment do to Marathon Injury?", In Sports Med. Volume 37(4-5), pp. 40-403.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Roberts2007,
  author = {William O. Roberts},
  title = {Heat and Cold -- What does the Environment do to Marathon Injury?},
  booktitle = {Sports Med},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {37},
  number = {4-5},
  pages = {40-403},
  url = {http://adisonline.com/sportsmedicine/Abstract/2007/37040/Heat_and_Cold__What_does_the_Environment_do_to.33.aspx}
}
Roberts, W.O. (2000), "A 12-yr profile of medical injury and illness for the Twin Cities Marathon", Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. Vol. 32, pp. 1549-1555.
BibTeX:
@article{Roberts2000,
  author = {W. O. Roberts},
  title = {A 12-yr profile of medical injury and illness for the Twin Cities Marathon},
  journal = {Med. Sci. Sports Exerc},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {1549-1555}
}
Rousseau, J., LIBERT, N., DUBOST, C., PELLETIER, C., BATJOM, E. & BONNEFOY, S. (2008), "Coup de chaleur d’exercice : comment refroidir ?", Réanoxyno. Vol. 24, pp. 21-24.
BibTeX:
@article{JMRousseau2008,
  author = {JM Rousseau and N LIBERT and C DUBOST and C PELLETIER and E BATJOM and S BONNEFOY},
  title = {Coup de chaleur d’exercice : comment refroidir ?},
  journal = {Réanoxyno},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {24},
  pages = {21-24},
  url = {http://www.carum.org/reanoxyo_24.pdf}
}
Saby, C., ABRIAT, A., BROSSET, C., KOZAC-RIBBENS, G., BENDAHAN, D., POULIQUEN, G., BRANGER, D.F. & PETROGNANI, R. (2008), "Coup de chaleur d’exercice : pourquoi explorer ?.", Réanoxyno. Vol. 24, pp. 25-27.
BibTeX:
@article{Saby2008,
  author = {C Saby and A ABRIAT and C BROSSET and G KOZAC-RIBBENS and D BENDAHAN and G POULIQUEN and D FIGARELLA BRANGER and R PETROGNANI},
  title = {Coup de chaleur d’exercice : pourquoi explorer ?.},
  journal = {Réanoxyno},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {24},
  pages = {25-27},
  url = {http://www.carum.org/reanoxyo_24.pdf}
}
Schauli, C. (1985), "Le drame du Heysel", reportage télévisé -- émission temps présent., juin, 1985.
Abstract: Le mercredi 29 mai 1985, les équipes de Liverpool et de la Juventus de Turin doivent s'affronter à Bruxelles en finale de la Coupe d'Europe. Par hasard, une équipe de la TSR est sur place pour un tournage sur les supporters de football. Elle se trouve sans le savoir encore au milieu de ce qui sera un des plus terrible drame du football européen et aboutira à l'exclusion pour de nombreuses années de toutes compétitions européennes du club de Liverpool.

Ces images firent le tour du monde après le drame.

Ce document a été diffusé à l'antenne sous le titre original : Les fous du football

BibTeX:
@electronic{TSR1985,
  author = {Claude Schauli},
  title = {Le drame du Heysel},
  year = {1985},
  url = {http://archives.tsr.ch/player/catastrophe-heysel}
}
Schauli, C. & Demont, P. (1985), "Le drame du Heysel", Film., june, 1985.
Abstract: Le mercredi 29 mai 1985, les équipes de Liverpool et de la Juventus de Turin doivent s'affronter à Bruxelles en finale de la Coupe d'Europe. Par hasard, une équipe de la TSR est sur place pour un tournage sur les supporters de football. Elle se trouve sans le savoir encore au milieu de ce qui sera un des plus terrible drame du football européen et aboutira à l'exclusion pour de nombreuses années de toutes compétitions européennes du club de Liverpool.

Ces images firent le tour du monde après le drame.

Ce document a été diffusé à l'antenne sous le titre original : Les fous du football

BibTeX:
@electronic{HEYSEL_RTS,
  author = {Claude Schauli and Pierre Demont},
  title = {Le drame du Heysel},
  year = {1985},
  note = {15 min 04 sec},
  url = {http://www.rts.ch/archives/tv/information/temps-present/3438604-le-drame-du-heysel.html}
}
Thompson, J.M., Savoia, G., Powell, G., Challis, E.B. & Law, P. (1991), "Level of Medical Care Required for Mass Gatherings: The XV Winter Olympic Games in Calgary, Canada", Ann Emerg Med. , pp. 385.
BibTeX:
@article{Thompson1991,
  author = {James M Thompson and Gino Savoia and Gregory Powell and E B Challis and Patricia Law and},
  title = {Level of Medical Care Required for Mass Gatherings: The XV Winter Olympic Games in Calgary, Canada},
  journal = {Ann Emerg Med},
  year = {1991},
  pages = {385},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0196064405816609}
}
Tsouros, A.D. & Efstathiou, P.A. (2007), "Mass Gatherings and Public Health -- The Experience of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games"
Abstract: Large-scale mass gatherings, such as the Olympic Games, represent significant challenges for the entire health sector of host countries. Emerging
global public health threats of natural or deliberate nature increase considerably the health and safety vulnerability of mass gatherings. Major
areas of public health responsibility include health care capacity and mass-casualty preparedness; disease surveillance and outbreak response;
environmental health and food safety; public information and health promotion; public health preparedness and response to incidents potentially
involving the deliberate use of explosives, biological and chemical agents or radionuclear material; and leadership, operations and unified
command. This book comprehensively and systematically presents the experience of and lessons learned from the public health aspects of the
preparations and conduct of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games. Documenting this experience can be a source of valuable information and
knowledge for governments at all levels and communities in building their capacity for not only large-scale events but also preparing to deal with
the avian influenza pandemic threat or other emergencies such as flooding and phenomena often associated with climate change.
BibTeX:
@techreport{Tsouros2007,
  author = {Agis D. Tsouros and Panos A. Efstathiou},
  title = {Mass Gatherings and Public Health -- The Experience of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games},
  year = {2007},
  url = {http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/98415/E90712.pdf}
}
Villa, G., Molina, I. & Fried, R. (2011), "Modeling attendance at Spanish professional football league", Journal of Applied Statistics., June, 2011. Vol. 38(6), pp. 1189-1206.
BibTeX:
@article{Villa2011,
  author = {Villa, Guillermo and Molina, Isabel and Fried, Roland},
  title = {Modeling attendance at Spanish professional football league},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Statistics},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {38},
  number = {6},
  pages = {1189--1206},
  url = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02664763.2010.491859#preview},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02664763.2010.491859}
}
Wassertheil, J., Keane, G., Fisher, N. & Leditschke, J. (2000), "Cardiac arrest outcomes at the Melbourne Cricket Ground and Shrine of Remembrance using a tiered response strategy-a forerunner to public access defibrillation.", Resuscitation. Vol. 44, pp. 97-104.
Abstract: The provision of medical, paramedical and first aid services at major public events is an important concern for pre-hospital emergency medical care providers. Patient outcomes of a cardiac arrest response strategy employed at the Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG) and the Shrine of Remembrance by St John Ambulance Australia volunteers are reported. Twenty-eight consecutive events occurring between December 1989 and December 1997 have been analysed. Included are three cardiac arrests managed at ANZAC day parades utilising the same response strategy by the same unit. The incidence of cardiac arrest at the MCG was 1:500 000 attendances. Of the 28 patients, 24 (86%) left the venue alive and 20 (71%) were discharged home from hospital. In all cases the initial rhythm was ventricular fibrillation (VF). All 26 patients (93%) who were defibrillated by St John teams had this intervention within 5 min from the documented time of collapse. One patient in VF spontaneously reverted during CPR. Of the eight fatalities, four died at the scene. At major public venues and events, a co-ordinated emergency life support provision strategy, tailor made for the venue, is necessary for the delivery of prompt CPR, timely defibrillation and advanced life support.
BibTeX:
@article{Wassertheil2000,
  author = {J Wassertheil and G Keane and N Fisher and J.F Leditschke},
  title = {Cardiac arrest outcomes at the Melbourne Cricket Ground and Shrine of Remembrance using a tiered response strategy-a forerunner to public access defibrillation.},
  journal = {Resuscitation},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {44},
  pages = {97-104},
  url = {http://www.resuscitationjournal.com/article/S0300-9572(99)00168-9/abstract}
}
Wilbert-Lampen, U., Leistner, D., Greven, S., Pohl, T., Sper, S., Völker, C., Güthlin, D., Plasse, A., Knez, A., Küchenhoff, H. & Steinbeck, G. (2008), "Cardiovascular Events during World Cup Soccer", The New England Journal of Medicine. Vol. 358, pp. 475-483.
BibTeX:
@article{Wilbert-Lampen2008,
  author = {Ute Wilbert-Lampen and David Leistner and Sonja Greven and Tilmann Pohl and Sebastian Sper and Christoph Völker and Denise Güthlin and Andrea Plasse and Andreas Knez and Helmut Küchenhoff and Gerhard Steinbeck},
  title = {Cardiovascular Events during World Cup Soccer},
  journal = {The New England Journal of Medicine},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {358},
  pages = {475-483},
  url = {http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMoa0707427}
}
Yancey, A.H., Fuhrib, P.D., Pillayc, Y. & Greenwalda, I. (2008), "World Cup 2010 planning: An integration of public health and medical systems", Public Health. Vol. 122, pp. 1020-1029.
Abstract: Objectives: To present crucial stages of planning and the resources involved
in the medical and health care that will address issues affecting the health
and safety of all participants in the 2010 World Cup.
Design: Relevant literature reviews of mass gathering medical care supplemented
experience of the authors in planning for previous similar events. Attention is focused
on issues wherein effective planning requires the integration of public health
practices with those of clinical emergency medical services. The tables that are included
serve to illustrate the depth and breadth of planning as well as the organizational
relationships required to execute care of a universally acceptable
standard.
Conclusions: This article offers guidance in planning for the 2010 World Cup health
and emergency medical care, emphasizing the need for integration of public health
and medical practices. It depicts the span of planning envisioned, the organizational
relationships crucial to it, and emphasizes the necessity of an early start.
BibTeX:
@article{Yancey2008,
  author = {Arthur H. Yancey and Peter D. Fuhrib and Yogan Pillayc and Ian Greenwalda},
  title = {World Cup 2010 planning: An integration of public health and medical systems},
  journal = {Public Health},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {122},
  pages = {1020-1029},
  url = {http://xa.yimg.com/kq/groups/16063327/696201010/name/Yancey+et+al.+-+2008+-+World+Cup+2010+planning+an+integration+of+public+health+and+medical+systems.pdf}
}
(), "Regulations of the UEFA Champions League -- 2012-15 Cycle -- 2012/13 Season"
BibTeX:
@manual{UEFA2012,,
  title = {Regulations of the UEFA Champions League -- 2012-15 Cycle -- 2012/13 Season},
  url = {http://www.uefa.com/MultimediaFiles/Download/Regulations/competitions/Regulations/01/79/68/69/1796869_DOWNLOAD.pdf}
}

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