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Duncan, H. 'T. (2009), "Pre-event Crowd Behaviour Prediction System: A Study within Concert Environment", Journal of Crowd Safety and Security Management. Vol. 1(2), pp. 33-43.
Abstract: This paper investigates the relationship between artistes’ performance behaviour and set lists/song tempos, and their respective audience behaviour, using a pre-event, concert audience prediction system. The purpose of the study is to determine whether this prediction system can enhance crowd safety at concerts. A case study approach was adopted, and qualitative research was conducted by systematically observing audience behaviour. Sampling was purposive, and audiences at two concerts were conveniently chosen. Secondary statistics regarding audience demographics were also used to aid in the analysis. The findings suggest that the pre-event crowd prediction system is a useful tool that can aid crowd safety efforts at these events. They also point to the need for properly qualified safety management personnel to conduct such a prediction system. Further research is suggested into crowd behaviour within a concert environment incorporating data on queuing systems, crowd arrival/dispersal, event specific ingress and egress patterns, and artistes’ behaviour.
BibTeX:
@article{Duncan2009,
  author = {Hugh 'Tony' Duncan},
  title = {Pre-event Crowd Behaviour Prediction System: A Study within Concert Environment},
  journal = {Journal of Crowd Safety and Security Management},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {1},
  number = {2},
  pages = {33-43},
  url = {http://www.crowdsafetymanagement.co.uk/data/journals/4%20issue%202.pdf}
}
Fridman, N., Zilberstein, T. & Kaminka, G.A. (2011), "Predicting Demonstrations’ Violence Level Using Qualitative Reasoning", In Social Computing, Behavioral-Cultural Modeling and Prediction. Berlin, Heidelberg Vol. 6589, pp. 42-50. Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Abstract: In this paper we describe a method for modeling social behavior of
large groups, and apply it to the problem of predicting potential violence during
demonstrations. We use qualitative reasoning techniques which to our knowledge
have never been applied to modeling crowd behaviors, nor in particular to demonstrations.
Such modeling may not only contribute to the police decision making
process, but can also provide a great opportunity to test existing theories in social
science. We incrementally present and compare three qualitative models, based
on social science theories. The results show that while two of these models fail
to predict the outcomes of real-world events reported and analyzed in the literature,
one model is successful. We believe that this demonstrates the efficacy of
qualitative reasoning in the development and testing of social sciences theories.
BibTeX:
@incollection{Fridman2011,
  author = {Fridman, Natalie and Zilberstein, Tomer and Kaminka, Gal A.},
  title = {Predicting Demonstrations’ Violence Level Using Qualitative Reasoning},
  booktitle = {Social Computing, Behavioral-Cultural Modeling and Prediction},
  publisher = {Springer Berlin Heidelberg},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {6589},
  pages = {42--50},
  url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/q933112125l8178t/}
}
Greenock, J.-P. (2006), "A study into the Management Strategies currently employed to maximise crowd safety within the United Kingdom Live Music industry". School: Buckinghamshire Chiltrens University College.
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{Greenock2006,
  author = {John-Paul Greenock},
  title = {A study into the Management Strategies currently employed to maximise crowd safety within the United Kingdom Live Music industry},
  school = {Buckinghamshire Chiltrens University College},
  year = {2006},
  url = {http://www.stagesafe.co.uk/user_files/crowd-safety.pdf}
}
Helbing, D. & Mukerji, P. (2012), "Crowd Disasters as Systemic Failures: Analysis of the Love Parade Disaster", EPJ Data Science. Zurich Vol. 1(7), pp. 1-40.
BibTeX:
@article{Helbing2012,
  author = {Dirk Helbing and Pratik Mukerji},
  title = {Crowd Disasters as Systemic Failures: Analysis of the Love Parade Disaster},
  journal = {EPJ Data Science},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {1},
  number = {7},
  pages = {1-40},
  url = {http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1140%2Fepjds7.pdf}
}
Hutton, A., Zeitz, K., Brown, S. & Arbon, P. (2012), "Assessing the Psychosocial Elements of Crowds at Mass Gatherings", Prehosp Disaster Med. Vol. 26, pp. 414-421.
Abstract: Introduction: The environmental aspects of mass gatherings that can affect the health and safety of the crowd have been well described. Although it has been recognized that the nature of the crowd will directly impact the health and safety of the crowd, the majority of research focuses on crowd behavior in a negative context such as violence or conflict. Within the mass gathering literature, there is no agreement on what crowd behavior, crowd mood and crowd type actually mean. At the same time, these elements have a number of applications, including event management and mass gathering medicine. These questions are worthy of exploration.
Methods: This paper will report on a pilot project undertaken to evaluate how effective current crowd assessment tools are in understanding the psychosocial domain of a mass gathering event.
Results: The pilot project highlighted the need for a more consistent descriptive data set that focuses on crowd behavior.
Conclusions: The descriptive data collected in this study provide a beginning insight into the science of understanding crowds at a mass gathering event. This pilot has commenced a process of quantifying the psychosocial nature of an event. To maximize the value of this work, future research is required to understand the interplay among the three domains of mass gatherings (physical, environmental and psychological), along with the effects of each element within the domains on safety and health outcomes for participants at mass gatherings.
BibTeX:
@article{Hutton2012,
  author = {Alison Hutton and Kathryn Zeitz and Steve Brown and Paul Arbon},
  title = {Assessing the Psychosocial Elements of Crowds at Mass Gatherings},
  journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {26},
  pages = {414-421}
}
Johansson, A., Batty, M., Hayashi, K., Bar, O.A., Marcozzi, D. & Memish, Z.A. (2012), "Crowd and environmental management during mass gatherings", Lancet Infect Dis. Vol. 12, pp. 150-156.
BibTeX:
@article{Johansson2012,
  author = {Anders Johansson and Michael Batty and Konrad Hayashi and Osama Al Bar and David Marcozzi and Ziad A Memish},
  title = {Crowd and environmental management during mass gatherings},
  journal = {Lancet Infect Dis},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {12},
  pages = {150-156},
  url = {http://press.thelancet.com/mg4.pdf}
}
Krausz, B. & Bauckhage, C. (), "Loveparade 2010: Automatic Video Analysis of a Crowd Disaster", Computer Vision and Image Understanding.
BibTeX:
@article{Krausz,
  author = {B. Krausz and C. Bauckhage},
  title = {Loveparade 2010: Automatic Video Analysis of a Crowd Disaster},
  journal = {Computer Vision and Image Understanding}
}
Leigh, M., Robinson, M.A. & Challenger, C.W.C.R. (2009), "Understanding Crowd Behaviours: A Guide for Readers"
BibTeX:
@manual{CabinetOffice2009_a,
  author = {Mark Leigh and Mark A. Robinson and Chris W. Clegg Rose Challenger},
  title = {Understanding Crowd Behaviours: A Guide for Readers},
  year = {2009},
  url = {http://www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/resource-library/understanding-crowd-behaviours-documents}
}
Lewis, J.M. (1989), "A value-added analysis of the Heysel Stadium soccer riot", Current Psychology., March, 1989. Vol. 8(1), pp. 15-29.
Abstract: On May 29, 1985, a riot occurred at the European Cup Final soccer championship between Liverpool and Juventus at Heysel Stadium in Brussels, Belgium. The riot, which caused the death of thirty-nine soccer fans, had a profound effect on English society as well as on professional soccer. This essay uses Smelser's 0962) general model of collective behavior to analyze data derived from a number of sources describing the Heysel Stadium riot. In particular, this analysis focuses on a period of four hours, from the beginning of the riot at about 7:30 p.m. until the conclusion of the match around 11:30 p.m.
BibTeX:
@article{Lewis1989,
  author = {Lewis, Jerry M.},
  title = {A value-added analysis of the Heysel Stadium soccer riot},
  journal = {Current Psychology},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {8},
  number = {1},
  pages = {15--29},
  url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/aw10162650175323/},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02686734}
}
morga364 (2010), "Concert Violence", blog. april, 2010.
BibTeX:
@misc{ConcertViolence,
  author = {morga364},
  title = {Concert Violence},
  howpublished = {blog},
  year = {2010},
  url = {http://blog.lib.umn.edu/morga364/myblog2/2010/04/}
}
Neary, K.S. (), "Ultimate Guide to the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade -- Security and logistics"
BibTeX:
@electronic{Neary,
  author = {Kathleen Seiler Neary},
  title = {Ultimate Guide to the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade -- Security and logistics},
  url = {http://tlc.howstuffworks.com/family/macys-thanksgiving-day-parade4.htm}
}
Schauli, C. (1985), "Le drame du Heysel", reportage télévisé -- émission temps présent., juin, 1985.
Abstract: Le mercredi 29 mai 1985, les équipes de Liverpool et de la Juventus de Turin doivent s'affronter à Bruxelles en finale de la Coupe d'Europe. Par hasard, une équipe de la TSR est sur place pour un tournage sur les supporters de football. Elle se trouve sans le savoir encore au milieu de ce qui sera un des plus terrible drame du football européen et aboutira à l'exclusion pour de nombreuses années de toutes compétitions européennes du club de Liverpool.

Ces images firent le tour du monde après le drame.

Ce document a été diffusé à l'antenne sous le titre original : Les fous du football

BibTeX:
@electronic{TSR1985,
  author = {Claude Schauli},
  title = {Le drame du Heysel},
  year = {1985},
  url = {http://archives.tsr.ch/player/catastrophe-heysel}
}
Soomaroo, L. & Murray, V. (2012), "Disasters at Mass Gatherings: Lessons from History", PLoS Currents Disasters., fev, 2012.
BibTeX:
@article{Soomaroo2012,
  author = {Lee Soomaroo and Virginia Murray},
  title = {Disasters at Mass Gatherings: Lessons from History},
  journal = {PLoS Currents Disasters},
  year = {2012},
  note = {2012 Jan 31 [last modified: 2012 Mar 13]},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/4f70cf55a7dbc}
}
Upton, M. (), "", blog.
BibTeX:
@electronic{WEBSITE002,
  author = {Mick Upton},
  url = {http://mickupton.wordpress.com/}
}
Upton, M. (1995), "Incident at Donington Monsters of Rock 1988", In Easingworld Seminar -- Mass Crowd Events.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Upton1995,
  author = {Mick Upton},
  title = {Incident at Donington Monsters of Rock 1988},
  booktitle = {Easingworld Seminar -- Mass Crowd Events},
  year = {1995},
  url = {http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CBkQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.safeconcerts.com%2Fdocuments%2FDonintondisaster1988.pdf&ei=tXVjTt6rGsLsOaiSqJEK&usg=AFQjCNFRFH7HQHUki8adUnfClYBAoaa_1g}
}
Vendel, C. (2004), "Parade security concerns police"
BibTeX:
@electronic{Vendel2004,
  author = {Christine Vendel},
  title = {Parade security concerns police},
  year = {2004},
  url = {http://blogs.kansascity.com/crime_scene/files/2004_parade_security_concerns_police_17_arrests.pdf}
}
Zeitz, K.M., Tan, H.M., Grief, M., Couns, P.C. & Zeitz, C.J. (2009), "Crowd behavior at mass gatherings: a literature review", Prehosp Disaster Med., February, 2009. Vol. 24(1), pp. 32-38.
Abstract: Gaining an understanding of crowd behavior is important in supporting timely and appropriate crowd management principles in the planning and provision of emergency services at mass gatherings. This paper provides a review of the current understanding of the psychological factors of a crowd within the psychosocial domain as they apply to mass-gathering settings. It can be concluded from this review that there is a large theory-practice gap in relation to crowd psychology and the mass-gathering setting. The literature has highlighted two important elements of crowd behavior-there must be a "seed" and people must engage. Understanding these behaviors may provide opportunities to change crowd behavior outcomes.
BibTeX:
@article{Zeitz2009,
  author = {Zeitz, Kathryn M and Tan, Heather M and Grief, M and Couns, P C and Zeitz, Christopher J},
  title = {Crowd behavior at mass gatherings: a literature review},
  journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {24},
  number = {1},
  pages = {32--38},
  note = {PMID: 19557955},
  url = {http://pdm.medicine.wisc.edu/Volume_24/issue_1/zeitz.pdf}
}
(), "" Kingshill Road, High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, HP13 5BB
BibTeX:
@electronic{WEBSITE001,,
  url = {www.crowdsafetymanagement.co.uk}
}
(2011), "Festival crush disasters could be prevented with software that detects dangerous crowd build-up", august, 2011.
BibTeX:
@electronic{DAILYMAIL2011,,
  title = {Festival crush disasters could be prevented with software that detects dangerous crowd build-up},
  year = {2011},
  url = {http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2022203/Festival-crush-disasters-prevented-software-detects-dangerous-crowd-build-up.html}
}
(2009), "Losing Sight Of People In A Crowd Can Spell Disaster, Warns New Report", ScienceDaily.
BibTeX:
@electronic{Leeds2009,,
  title = {Losing Sight Of People In A Crowd Can Spell Disaster, Warns New Report},
  year = {2009},
  url = {http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/07/090710121539.htm}
}
(1999), "Safe and Healthy Mass Gatherings"
BibTeX:
@techreport{EMA1999,,
  title = {Safe and Healthy Mass Gatherings},
  year = {1999},
  url = {http://www.health.sa.gov.au/pehs/publications/ema-mass-gatherings-manual.pdf}
}

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