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Águila, M.I. (2010), "Security in Music Festivals and Concerts". School: Haaga - Helia -- University of applied science.
Abstract: The objective of this thesis is to show the increasing importance of security in music festivals and concerts to everyone interested and involved into this type of events; such as organizers, promoters, suppliers, public authorities and attendees. The aim is to provide enough useful information about security and safety issues that are related to these events, in order to induce organizations to make more secure events.
The main topic of this research is safety and security issues concerning music festival and con-certs. Concretely, this research examines the challenges of arranging music festivals and con-certs in terms of security, and how beneficial it is for companies and organizations to be aware of the importance of security in this type of events.
The theoretical framework is focused on Risk Management: what it is, how does it function in music festivals and events; anything related to the Risk Management process, including the security plan and the emergency plan. In addition, anything related to security and safety issues concerning music festivals and concerts is included: legal aspects; health and safety issues; design and site management issues; administration, communications and marketing issues; crowd control; as well as, other important issues to consider after the events have been held.
The research method chosen for this thesis is the qualitative one. Research was collected by direct observation on concerts, studying music festivals and concert venues’ online sources, studying available resources based on risk management and security in music festivals and concerts; and with the material gathered from interviews conducted to festival and concert organizers, and to concert attendees, in Finland and abroad.
The results of the research show that most organizations still lack of general awareness on the importance of security in music festivals and concerts. Also many venues do not have the safety measures that are required by professional event producers and organisers and the law, to assure a safe event. Organizations could take example of the new and standard security and safety measures implemented by the Roskilde Festival and the Download Festival, and from the measures taken at all music festival and concert venues in Japan; to improve in security. Moreover, organizations should show more interest and concern on security aspects that af-fect this type of events, in order to provide not only a once in a lifetime experience but also a safe environment for everybody under any unexpected chain of events that could take place.
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{Aguila2010,
  author = {María Isabel Águila},
  title = {Security in Music Festivals and Concerts},
  school = {Haaga - Helia -- University of applied science},
  year = {2010},
  url = {https://publications.theseus.fi/handle/10024/25310}
}
Bönisch, G. & Röbel, S. (2010), "Interview with the Love Parade Crowd Manager -- 'Many More Visitors Came than We Expected'", Der Spiegel., october, 2010.
BibTeX:
@article{Boenisch2010,
  author = {Georg Bönisch and Sven Röbel},
  title = {Interview with the Love Parade Crowd Manager -- 'Many More Visitors Came than We Expected'},
  journal = {Der Spiegel},
  year = {2010},
  url = {http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/0,1518,711099,00.html}
}
Boyer, C., Ammirati, C., Thiebaut, H. & Nemitz, B. (1999), "Couverture médicale des rassemblements de foule : essai de modélisation", Médecine de catastrophe -- urgences collectives. Vol. 2, pp. 24-30.
Abstract: L'objectif de cet article est d'analyser les facteurs de risque et les besoins médicaux pour les rassemblements de plus de 5 000 personnes en France. Une hypothèse sur un nombre d'équipe médical nécessaire pour 10 000 spectateurs en fonction du type d'événement a été avancée à partir d'un calcul ≪ temps-médecin ≫. Pour cela, un questionnaire a été envoyé à tous les Samu et SDIS de France et la littérature a été étudiée ; 179 événements ont été rapportés et analysés. L'étude statistique comparée à celle de la littérature nous a permis d'évaluer le nombre et la gravité des pathologies en fonction du type d'événement et de la quantité de population. II ressort de cette étude que pour un certain nombre d'événements, en particulier le football et les concerts de musique, il est possible de calculer une couverture médicale suffisante et pertinente pour 95 % de l'ensemble des événements, en tenant compte des probabilités de risques médicaux (issues des statistiques), du type de couverture médicale envisagée (médicalisation ou non des postes de secours, présence d'un poste médical avancé et/ou d'un poste de commandement), du temps consacré au tri et à la prise en charge des pathologies. Cette approche objective ne prend pas en compte les risques non connus par le responsable médical et la situation de catastrophe qui peut en découler. Afin d'infirmer ou confirmer ces hypothèses, un observatoire national a été crée à Amiens au Samu 80. Il permettra à partir de fiches types envoyées à tous les Samu et SDIS de France de recueillir des données précises sur les aspects médicaux de chaque rassemblement de foule.
BibTeX:
@article{Boyer1999,
  author = {C. Boyer and C. Ammirati and H. Thiebaut and B. Nemitz},
  title = {Couverture médicale des rassemblements de foule : essai de modélisation},
  journal = {Médecine de catastrophe -- urgences collectives},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {24-30},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/12798479}
}
Caruso, A.T. (2011), "Concert and Special Event EMS", EMSworld website. jan, 2011.
BibTeX:
@misc{Caruso2011,
  author = {Andrew T. Caruso},
  title = {Concert and Special Event EMS},
  howpublished = {EMSworld website},
  year = {2011},
  url = {http://www.emsworld.com/web/online/Education/Concert-and-Special-Event-EMS/5$10271}
}
Chapman, K.R., Carmichael, F.J. & Goode, J.E. (1982), "Medical services for outdoor rock music festivals", Canadian Medical Association Journal., April, 1982. Vol. 126(8), pp. 935-938.
Abstract: This paper describes the medical services provided at an outdoor rock music festival near Toronto and reviews similar services at other outdoor concerts as reported in the literature. Between 0.5% and 1.5% of concertgoers were reported to have used medical services, proportions that may be useful in planning for future festivals. Most of the medical problems encountered were minor, although life-threatening problems occasionally occurred. Alcohol and drug abuse were common but led to major medical problems in only small proportions of patients. Guidelines for planning are suggested that include recommendations about facilities, supplies and equipment, transportation and communications, staffing and procedures. The need for liaison with the concert promoters, the police, ambulance officials and local hospital personnel is noted, and the use of the nonmedical ancillary staff is encouraged.
BibTeX:
@article{Chapman1982,
  author = {Chapman, K R and Carmichael, F J and Goode, J E},
  title = {Medical services for outdoor rock music festivals},
  journal = {Canadian Medical Association Journal},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {126},
  number = {8},
  pages = {935--938},
  note = {PMID: 7074491},
  url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1862986/pdf/canmedaj01365-0059.pdf}
}
Dhondt, E. (2007), "Emergency physician managed triage at a rock concert avoids overload at the local emergency department (ED) [poster]", In 15th World Congress on Disaster and Emergency Medicine.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Dhondt2007,
  author = {Erwin Dhondt},
  title = {Emergency physician managed triage at a rock concert avoids overload at the local emergency department (ED) [poster]},
  booktitle = {15th World Congress on Disaster and Emergency Medicine},
  year = {2007},
  url = {http://homepages.ulb.ac.be/ccloquet/files/Dhondt2007.pdf}
}
Earl, C. (2006), "Public Health Management at Outdoor Music Festivals". School: Queensland University of Technology. Brisbane
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Earl2006,
  author = {Cameron Earl},
  title = {Public Health Management at Outdoor Music Festivals},
  school = {Queensland University of Technology},
  year = {2006}
}
Erickson, T.B., Aks, S.E., Koenigsberg, M., Bunney, E.B., Schurgin, B. & Levy, P. (1996), "Drug use patterns at major rock concert events", Ann Emerg Med. Vol. 28, pp. 22-26.
Abstract: STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe alcohol and drug use patterns in patients presenting to first aid stations at major rock concerts.

METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all charts generated at the first aid stations of five major rock concerts featuring the rock groups Pink Floyd, the Grateful Dead, and the Rolling Stones. The first aid stations, located at a sports stadium, were staffed by paramedics, emergency medicine nurses, and physicians. We recorded the following data: patient demographics, history of drug or ethanol use, time spent by patient in first aid station, treatment rendered, diagnosis, and patient disposition.

RESULTS: A total of 253, 286 spectators attended the five concert events. The rate of use of the first aid station was 1.2 per 1,000 patrons. The average age of the patrons was 26.3 +/- 7.9 years (range, 3 to 56 years). The most common diagnoses were minor trauma 130 (42%) and ethanol or illicit drug intoxication 98 (32%). Of the patients treated, 147 (48%) admitted to using illicit drugs or ethanol while attending the concerts. The median time spent in the first aid station was 15 +/- 22.5 minutes (range, 5 to 150 minutes). One hundred patients (32.5%) were treated and released, 98 (32%) were transported to emergency departments, and 110 (35.5%) signed out against medical advice.

CONCLUSION: Minor trauma and the use of illicit drugs and ethanol were common in spectators presenting to first aid stations at these concert events. Physicians and paramedical personnel working at rock concerts should be aware of the current drug use patterns and should be trained in treating such drug use.

BibTeX:
@article{Erickson1996,
  author = {T. B. Erickson and S. E. Aks and M. Koenigsberg and E. B. Bunney and B. Schurgin and P. Levy},
  title = {Drug use patterns at major rock concert events},
  journal = {Ann Emerg Med},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {28},
  pages = {22-26},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0196064496701336}
}
Feldman, M.J., Lukins, J.L., Verbeek, P., Burgess, R.J. & Schwartz, B. (2005), "Use of treat-and-release medical directives for paramedics at a mass gathering", Prehosp Emerg Care. Vol. 9(2), pp. 213-217.
BibTeX:
@article{Feldman2005,
  author = {M. J. Feldman and J. L. Lukins and P.R. Verbeek and R. J. Burgess and B. Schwartz},
  title = {Use of treat-and-release medical directives for paramedics at a mass gathering},
  journal = {Prehosp Emerg Care},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {9},
  number = {2},
  pages = {213-217},
  url = {http://www.socpc.ca/pdf/research/Use%20of%20treat%20and%20release%20medical%20directives%20for%20paramedics%20at%20a%20mass%20gathering.pdf}
}
Forrest, R.D. (1999), "[Report from the medical tent at three rock festivals. Lots of music, great fun and very little drunkeness]", Läkartidningen., June, 1999. Vol. 96(23), pp. 2874-2876.
Abstract: Rock festivals are popular summer attractions in Scandinavia, and each of the largest festivals has its own voluntary medical crew of doctors, nurses and nursing auxiliaries. The medical crew is an important part of the festival safety facilities, providing free acute health care to festival visitors, and thus relieving pressure on local primary health centres and hospitals. In 1998, 797 of the 25,000 visitors to the three-day Hultsfred Festival were treated at the medical tent, 465 of them by a doctor; and 305 of the 17,000 people attending the two-day Fanclub88 event were treated at the medical tent, 132 by a doctor. No figures are available for the 1998 Roskilde Festival in Denmark, but at the 1997 festival, 3,369 of the 95,000 visitors were treated at the medical tent.
BibTeX:
@article{Forrest1999,
  author = {Forrest, R D},
  title = {[Report from the medical tent at three rock festivals. Lots of music, great fun and very little drunkeness]},
  journal = {Läkartidningen},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {96},
  number = {23},
  pages = {2874--2876},
  note = {PMID: 10405537},
  url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10405537}
}
Grange, J.T., Green, S.M. & Downs, W. (1999), "Concert Medicine: Spectrum of Medical Problems Encountered at 405 Major Concerts", Academic Emergency Medicine. Vol. 6, pp. 202-207.
BibTeX:
@article{Grange1999,
  author = {Jeff T. Grange and Steven M. Green and Warren Downs},
  title = {Concert Medicine: Spectrum of Medical Problems Encountered at 405 Major Concerts},
  journal = {Academic Emergency Medicine},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {6},
  pages = {202-207},
  url = {http://www.symonseventsafety.com/cmsdocuments/Concert_Medicine_article_for_website.pdf}
}
Helbing, D. & Mukerji, P. (2012), "Crowd Disasters as Systemic Failures: Analysis of the Love Parade Disaster", EPJ Data Science. Zurich Vol. 1(7), pp. 1-40.
BibTeX:
@article{Helbing2012,
  author = {Dirk Helbing and Pratik Mukerji},
  title = {Crowd Disasters as Systemic Failures: Analysis of the Love Parade Disaster},
  journal = {EPJ Data Science},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {1},
  number = {7},
  pages = {1-40},
  url = {http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1140%2Fepjds7.pdf}
}
Hewitt, S., Jarrett, L. & Winter, B. (1996), "Emergency medicine at a large rock festival", J Accid Emerg Med. Vol. 13, pp. 6-27.
BibTeX:
@article{Hewitt1996,
  author = {Susanne Hewitt and Lyn Jarrett and Bob Winter},
  title = {Emergency medicine at a large rock festival},
  journal = {J Accid Emerg Med},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {13},
  pages = {6-27}
}
Huchet, F. (2012), "Demande de soins lors d’un grand rassemblement, étude descriptive du premier festival de musique francais". School: Université De Brest – Bretagne Occidentale., juin, 2012.
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{Huchet2012,
  author = {François Huchet},
  title = {Demande de soins lors d’un grand rassemblement, étude descriptive du premier festival de musique francais},
  school = {Université De Brest – Bretagne Occidentale},
  year = {2012},
  url = {http://dumas.ccsd.cnrs.fr/dumas-00717248}
}
Janchar, T., Samaddar, R. & Milzman, D. (1999), "The Impact of "Mosh Pits" on Medical Incidents at Mass Gatherings", Ann Emerg Med., In Annals of Emergency Medicine. Vol. 34(4), pp. S66-S67.
Review: Près de huit fois plus de victimes par 10000 participants en présence de "mosh-pits", une forme violente de danse.
BibTeX:
@article{Janchar1999,
  author = {T. Janchar and R. Samaddar and D. Milzman},
  title = {The Impact of "Mosh Pits" on Medical Incidents at Mass Gatherings},
  booktitle = {Annals of Emergency Medicine},
  journal = {Ann Emerg Med},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {34},
  number = {4},
  pages = {S66-S67},
  url = {http://www.annemergmed.com/article/S0196-0644(99)80340-0/abstract}
}
Kelly, J. & Gittell, M. (2010), "EMS at Woodstock", JEMS.
BibTeX:
@article{Kelly2010,
  author = {Jack Kelly and Myron Gittell},
  title = {EMS at Woodstock},
  journal = {JEMS},
  year = {2010},
  url = {http://www.jems.com/article/major-incidents/ems-woodstock}
}
Krul, J., Blankers, M. & Girbes, A.R.J. (2011), "Substance-Related Health Problems during Rave Parties in the Netherlands (1997–2008)", Plos One. Vol. 6, pp. e29620.
BibTeX:
@article{Krul2011,
  author = {Jan Krul and Matthijs Blankers and Armand R. J. Girbes},
  title = {Substance-Related Health Problems during Rave Parties in the Netherlands (1997–2008)},
  journal = {Plos One},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {6},
  pages = {e29620},
  url = {http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0029620}
}
Krul, J., Girbes, A.R. & Sanou, B.T. (2012), "Increase in serious ecstasy-related incidents in the Netherlands", The Lancet. Vol. 380, pp. 1385.
Abstract: We have noticed a sudden increase in ecstasy-related incidents in the Netherlands. In this country, rave parties are legal and medical surveillance is provided by specifically trained health-care workers. Medical events are categorised as life-threatening (category 1), not life-threatening but requiring medical assistance (category 2), and other non-serious events (category 3).
Between 1997 and 2010, 31 cases fulfilling category 1 and 2 criteria related to ecstasy use were recorded out of more than 5 million rave attendees.1, 2 However, in 2011 alone, 26 category 1 or 2 cases were recorded, indicating a striking increase. Although no scientific data exist to indicate the cause of this increase, as workers in the field we suggest that market-related factors such as higher doses of pills and non-uniform doses per pill might be the main cause.
We therefore warn of more ecstasy-related harm in the population, indicating the need for preventive measures by responsible authorities, more awareness in the population, and better research.
BibTeX:
@article{Krul2012a,
  author = {Jan Krul and Armand RJ Girbes and Björn T Sanou},
  title = {Increase in serious ecstasy-related incidents in the Netherlands},
  journal = {The Lancet},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {380},
  pages = {1385},
  url = {http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140673612618005.pdf}
}
Krul, J., Sanou, B., Swarta, E.L. & Girbes, A.R.J. (2012), "Medical Care at Mass Gatherings: Emergency Medical Services at Large-Scale Rave Events", Prehosp Disaster Med. Vol. 26, pp. 1-4.
Abstract: Objective: The objective of this study was to develop comprehensive guidelines for medical care during mass gatherings based on the experience of providing medical support during rave parties. Methods: Study design was a prospective, observational study of self-referred patients who reported to First Aid Stations (FASs) during Dutch rave parties. All users of medical care were registered on an existing standard questionnaire. Health problems were categorized as medical, trauma, psychological, or miscellaneous. Severity was assessed based on the Emergency Severity Index. Qualified nurses, paramedics, and doctors conducted the study after training in the use of the study questionnaire. Total number of visitors was reported by type of event. Results: During the 2006–2010 study period, 7,089 persons presented to FASs for medical aid during rave parties. Most of the problems (91.1%) were categorized as medical or trauma, and classified as mild. The most common medical complaints were general unwell-being, nausea, dizziness, and vomiting. Contusions, strains and sprains, wounds, lacerations, and blisters were the most common traumas. A small portion (2.4%) of the emergency aid was classified as moderate (professional medical care required), including two cases (0.03%) that were considered life-threatening. Hospital admission occurred in 2.2% of the patients. Fewer than half of all patients presenting for aid were transported by ambulance. More than a quarter of all cases (27.4%) were related to recreational drugs. Conclusions: During a five-year field research period at rave dance parties, most presentations on-site for medical evaluation were for mild conditions. A medical team of six healthcare workers for every 10,000 rave party visitors is recommended. On-site medical staff should consist primarily of first aid providers, along with nurses who have event-specific training on advanced life support, event-specific injuries and incidents, health education related to self-care deficits, interventions for psychological distress, infection control, and disaster medicine. Protocols should be available for treating common injuries and other minor medical problems, and for registration, triage, environmental surveillance and catastrophe management and response.
BibTeX:
@article{Krul2012,
  author = {Jan Krul and Björn Sanou and Eleonara L Swarta and and Armand R J Girbes},
  title = {Medical Care at Mass Gatherings: Emergency Medical Services at Large-Scale Rave Events},
  journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {26},
  pages = {1-4},
  url = {http://kcev.nl/wp-content/uploads/S1049023X12000271a.pdf}
}
Levens, L.K. & Durham, J.E. (1971), "Pop-Music Festivals: Some Medical Aspects", The British Medical Journal. Vol. 1(5742), pp. pp. 218-220. BMJ Publishing Group.
BibTeX:
@article{Levens1971,
  author = {Levens, L. K. and Durham, J. E.},
  title = {Pop-Music Festivals: Some Medical Aspects},
  journal = {The British Medical Journal},
  publisher = {BMJ Publishing Group},
  year = {1971},
  volume = {1},
  number = {5742},
  pages = {pp. 218-220},
  url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/25413187}
}
Locoh-Donou, S., Guofen, Y., Welcher, M., Berry, T., O'Connor, R.E. & Brady, W.J. (2013), "Mass-gathering medicine: a descriptive analysis of a range of mass-gathering event types", American Journal of Emergency Medicine., May, 2013. Vol. 31, pp. 843-846.
Review: moyennes avec déviations standard. Confirme que ce sont des variables de Poisson.
BibTeX:
@article{Locoh-Donou2013,
  author = {Samuel Locoh-Donou and Yan Guofen and Melanie Welcher and Thomas Berry and Robert E. O'Connor and William J. Brady},
  title = {Mass-gathering medicine: a descriptive analysis of a range of mass-gathering event types},
  journal = {American Journal of Emergency Medicine},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {843-846}
}
McQueen, C. & Davies, C. (2012), "Health care in a unique setting: applying emergency medicine at music festivals", Open Access Emergency Medicine. Vol. 4, pp. 69-73.
BibTeX:
@article{McQueen2012,
  author = {C. McQueen and C. Davies},
  title = {Health care in a unique setting: applying emergency medicine at music festivals},
  journal = {Open Access Emergency Medicine},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {4},
  pages = {69-73},
  url = {http://www.dovepress.com/health-care-in-a-unique-setting-applying-emergency-medicine-at-music-f-peer-reviewed-article-OAEM}
}
McQueen, C.P. (2010), "Care of children at a large outdoor music festival in the United Kingdom", Prehosp Disaster Med., June, 2010. Vol. 25(3), pp. 223-226.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION Limited data exist on the standard of care provided for children at mass gatherings and special events (MGSE). Some studies provide valuable insight into the proportion of pediatric patients that can be expected at various types of MGSEs, but an accurate breakdown of the range of pediatric conditions treated at major events has yet to be produced. Such data are essential for the preparation of MGSEs so that the health and safety of children at such events can be adequately safeguarded. The aim of this study is to examine the care requirements for children at a large, outdoor music festival in the United Kingdom. METHODS A retrospective review of all patient report forms (PRFs) from a large, outdoor music festival held in Leeds (UK) in 2003. Data were extracted from the PRFs using a standardized proforma and analyzed using an Excel computer program. RESULTS Pediatric cases contributed approximately 15% to the overall workload at the event. Children presented with a range of conditions that varied from those seen in the adult population. Children were more likely than adults to present for medical attention following crush injuries (OR = 2.536; 95% CI = 1.537-4.187); after a collapse/syncopal episode (OR = 2.687; 95% CI = 1.442-5.007); or complaining of nausea (OR = 3.484; 95% CI = 2.089-5.813). Alcohol/drugs were less likely to be involved in the precipitating cause for medical attention in children compared to adults (OR = 0.477; 95% CI = 0.250-0.912). No critical care incidents involving children were encountered during the event. CONCLUSIONS Mass gatherings and special events in the UK, such as outdoor music festivals, can involve a large number of children who access medical care for a different range of conditions compared to adults. The care of children at large, outdoor music events should not be overlooked. Event planning in the UK should include measures to ensure that appropriately trained and equipped medical teams are used at music festivals to safeguard the welfare of children who may attend. Further research into this exciting area is required.
BibTeX:
@article{McQueen2010,
  author = {Carl PC. McQueen},
  title = {Care of children at a large outdoor music festival in the United Kingdom},
  journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {25},
  number = {3},
  pages = {223--226},
  note = {PMID: 20586015},
  url = {http://pdm.medicine.wisc.edu/Volume_25/issue_3/mcqueen.pdf}
}
Milsten, A.M., Seaman, K.G., Liu, P., Bissell, R.A. & Maguire, B.J. (2003), "Variables Influencing Medical Usage Rates, Injury Patterns, and Levels of Care for Mass Gatherings", Prehosp Disaster Med. Vol. 18(4), pp. 334-346.
Abstract: Abstract
Objectives: Mass gatherings create difficult environments for which to plan
emergency medical responses. The purpose of this study was to identify
those variables that are associated with increased medical usage rates
(MURs) and certain injury patterns that can be used to facilitate the planning
process.
Methods: Patient information collected at three types of mass gatherings
(professional American football and baseball games and rock concerts) over
a three-year period was reviewed retrospectively. Specific variables were
abstracted: (1) event type; (2) gender; (3) age; (4) weather; and (5) attendance.
All 216 events (total attendance 9,708,567) studied were held in the
same metropolitan region. All MURs are reported as patients per 10,000
(PPTT).
Results: The 5,899 patient encounters yielded a MUR of 6.1 PPTT. Patient
encounters totaled 3,659 for baseball games (4.85 PPTT), 1,204 for football
games (6.75 PPTT), and 1,036 for rock concerts (30 PPTT). The MUR for
Location A concerts (no mosh pits) was 7.49 PPTT, whereas the MUR for
the one Location B concert (with mosh pits) was 110 PPTT. The MUR for
Location A concerts was higher than for baseball, but not football games (p
= 0.005). Gender distribution was equal among patrons seeking medical
care. The mean values for patient ages were 29 years at baseball games, 33
years at football games, and 20 years at concerts. The MUR at events held
when the apparent temperature was £80°F significantly lower statistically
than that at events conducted at temperatures <80°F were (18°C) (4.90 vs.
8.10 PPTT (p = 0.005)). The occurrence of precipitation and increased
attendance did not predict an increased MUR. Medical care was sought
mostly for minor/basic-level care (84%) and less so for advanced-level care
(16%). Medical cases occurred more often at sporting events (69%), and
were more common than were cases with traumatic injuries (31%). Concerts
with precipitation and rock concerts had a positive association with the incidence
of trauma and the incidence of injuries; whereas age and gender were
not associated with medical or traumatic diagnoses.
Conclusions: Event type and apparent temperature were the variables that
best predicted MUR as well as specific injury patterns and levels of care.
BibTeX:
@article{Milsten2003,
  author = {Andrew M. Milsten and Kevin G. Seaman and Peter Liu and Rick A. Bissell and Brain J. Maguire},
  title = {Variables Influencing Medical Usage Rates, Injury Patterns, and Levels of Care for Mass Gatherings},
  journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {18},
  number = {4},
  pages = {334-346},
  url = {http://pdm.medicine.wisc.edu/Volume_18/issue_4/milsten.pdf}
}
Moore, R., Williamson, K., Sochor, M. & Bradys, W.J. (2011), "Large-event medicine -- event characteristics impacting medical need", Am J Emerg Medicine. Vol. 29, pp. 1217-1221.
BibTeX:
@article{Moore2011,
  author = {Riley Moore and Kelly Williamson and Mark Sochor and William J. Bradys},
  title = {Large-event medicine -- event characteristics impacting medical need},
  journal = {Am J Emerg Medicine},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {29},
  pages = {1217-1221},
  url = {http://www.ajemjournal.com/article/S0735-6757(10)00384-0/abstract}
}
n (), "A Brief History of Concert Violence"
BibTeX:
@unpublished{morga364,
  author = {n},
  title = {A Brief History of Concert Violence},
  url = {http://blog.lib.umn.edu/morga364/myblog2/2010/04/}
}
Schlicht, J., Mitcheson, M. & Henry, M. (1972), "Medical aspects of large outdoor festivals", The Lancet. Vol. 299(7757), pp. 948 - 952.
Abstract: Four festivals of pop music have been described, and some problems of special interest and importance were emphasised. The #bad##trip# after lysergide usage is one medical problem at such festivals, and it is one with which British doctors have relatively little experience. The value of volunteers and their organisations cannot be emphasised too much, and their presence should always be an integral part of such occasions. The case-load experienced at these festivals makes it clear that such gatherings need general medical cover, and there should be additional facilities to deal with injuries due to violence or camping accidents.
BibTeX:
@article{Schlicht1972,
  author = {Justin Schlicht and Martin Mitcheson and Mel Henry},
  title = {Medical aspects of large outdoor festivals},
  journal = {The Lancet},
  year = {1972},
  volume = {299},
  number = {7757},
  pages = {948 - 952},
  note = {Originally published as Volume 1, Issue 7757},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673672915085},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(72)91508-5}
}
Skjeie, H., Nygaard, S., Li, H.S., Gardasevic, B., Fetveit, A. & Brekke, M. (2008), "[Medical emergency care and patient contact at the Quart Rock Festival in Norway]", Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Række., June, 2008. Vol. 128(13), pp. 1508-1511.
Abstract: BACKGROUND The annual Quart Rock Festival (1991-2007) was the largest rock festival in Norway. During festivals in 2004-06, a daily average of 3 000 personnel, guests and artists, and 10,000 visitors, 13,000 people, were present daily. The festival had a medical care organization recruited from primary care personnel. The team consisted of one general practitioner, one physiotherapist, two nurses from the municipality outpatient service, and lay personnel trained in first aid. MATERIAL AND METHODS We recorded all patient contacts at the festival in 2004, 2005, and 2006 in order to describe injuries requiring medical attention and the need for referrals. RESULTS The total number of festival participants, including personnel, was 208,000 during the registration period. Of totally 1,349 patient contacts, 254 required consultation with a nurse and 191 with the attending physician. There were no deaths, cardiac or respiratory arrests or serious penetrating trauma. 33 contacts were related to intoxication: 24 due to alcohol, five to illegal drugs and four to unknown substances. Violence-related injuries were the cause of 18 contacts, of which none were serious. 49 patients were referred for follow-up, mostly to the municipality outpatient service or their own physician, and five patients were admitted to hospital. The transport-to-hospital-ratio was 0.24 per 10,000 participants. INTERPRETATION The results are similar to those in studies of rock festivals in other countries. The need for referrals was equal to or lower than in other studies. This indicates that the primary care-based medical organization at the Quart Festival was adequate.
BibTeX:
@article{Skjeie2008,
  author = {Skjeie, Holgeir and Nygaard, Siv and Li, Henrik Stenwig and Gardasevic, Bozidar and Fetveit, Arne and Brekke, Mette},
  title = {[Medical emergency care and patient contact at the Quart Rock Festival in Norway]},
  journal = {Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Række},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {128},
  number = {13},
  pages = {1508--1511},
  note = {PMID: 18587456},
  url = {http://tidsskriftet.no/article/16190/en_GB/}
}
Steffen, R., Bouchama, A., Johansson, A., Dvorak, J., Isla, N., Smallwood, C. & Memish, Z.A. (2012), "Non-communicable health risks during mass gatherings", Lancet Infect Dis. Vol. 12, pp. 142-149.
BibTeX:
@article{Steffen2012,
  author = {Robert Steffen and Abderrezak Bouchama and Anders Johansson and Jiri Dvorak and Nicolas Isla and Catherine Smallwood and Ziad A Memish},
  title = {Non-communicable health risks during mass gatherings},
  journal = {Lancet Infect Dis},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {12},
  pages = {142-149},
  url = {http://press.thelancet.com/mg3.pdf},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(11)70293-6}
}
Upton, M. (), "Risk analysis for major concerts -- The benefit of hindsight", presented to cabinet Office Seminar Safety at mass Crowd Events (Jan 2004).
Abstract: This paper argues that a risk assessment relating to crowd safety at a contemporary concert that is based solely on quantitative measurements in fundamentally flawed. A common approach to risk assessment is reviewed and a need to adopt a four dimensional approach to risk identification is argued.
BibTeX:
@electronic{Upton2004,
  author = {Mick Upton},
  title = {Risk analysis for major concerts -- The benefit of hindsight},
  url = {http://www.safeconcerts.com/documents/riskassessment.pdf}
}
Varon, J., Fromm, R.E., Chanin, K., Filbin, M. & Vutpakdi, K. (2003), "Critical illness at mass gatherings is uncommon", Journal of Emergency Medicine. Vol. 25(4), pp. 409 - 413.
Abstract: Abstract—Gatherings of large numbers of people at
concerts, sporting events, and other occasions lead to an
assembled population with a potential for a wide variety of
illnesses and injuries. The collection of large numbers of
people in a single location has led some authors to recommend
the placement of resuscitation equipment or other
medical services in close proximity to these activities. These
recommendations not withstanding, data on the frequency
of critical illness at mass gatherings (a group exceeding
1000 persons) are difficult to ascertain. Therefore, it was
the purpose of this study to describe the incidence of critical
illnesses among assembled populations at mass gatherings.
An observational prospective study was conducted involving
patient encounters at a large, multipurpose, indoor
mass-gathering complex in Houston, Texas occurring between
Septemver 1, 1996 and June 30, 1997. Demographic,
treatment, disposition and diagnostic data were analyzed in
a computerized database. Of the 3.3 million attendants to
the 253 events analyzed during the 10-month study period,
there were 2762 (0.08%) patient encounters. Fifty-two percent
were women. Mean age was 32  15.6 years. Of these
patients, 51.1% were patrons and the remaining patients
were employees or contractors of the facility. A wide variety
of illness was seen with trauma (39.5%), headache (31%),
and other medical complaints (29.5%) being most frequent.
Disposition of the patients included 95.3% being discharged
to go back to the event and 2.2% being counseled to seek
other medical attention. One hundred twenty-nine patients
(4.7%) were referred to the Emergency Department (ED);
of these, 70 were transferred for abrasions, lacerations, or
skeletal injuries and 13 for chest pain. Of those referred to
the ED, 50 (38.7%) patients were transported by ambulance
and only 17.4% were admitted to telemetry, with
none admitted to an ICU. It is concluded that critical illness
at mass gatherings is infrequent, as seen in this study,
with very few being admitted to telemetry and none to an
ICU. Careful consideration of cost-benefit should occur
when determining allocation of resources for these
activities. © 2003 Elsevier Inc.
e Keywords—concerts; sporting events; mass-gathering
events; indoor stadium
BibTeX:
@article{Varon2003,
  author = {Joseph Varon and Robert E. Fromm and Katia Chanin and Michael Filbin and Kris Vutpakdi},
  title = {Critical illness at mass gatherings is uncommon},
  journal = {Journal of Emergency Medicine},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {25},
  number = {4},
  pages = {409 - 413},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S073646790300249X},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2003.03.001}
}
Vendel, C. (2004), "Parade security concerns police"
BibTeX:
@electronic{Vendel2004,
  author = {Christine Vendel},
  title = {Parade security concerns police},
  year = {2004},
  url = {http://blogs.kansascity.com/crime_scene/files/2004_parade_security_concerns_police_17_arrests.pdf}
}
Yates, K.M., Hazell, W.C. & Schweder, L. (2001), "Medical care at the Sweetwaters Music Festival", The New Zealand Medical Journal., April, 2001. Vol. 114(1129), pp. 162-164.
Abstract: AIMS To describe medical cover and medical presentations at the four-day 1999 Sweetwaters Music Festival, and make comparisons with other festivals. METHODS All medical contacts were counted, and patients presenting to the medical tent were included in the study. Case records were studied to determine demographic data, nature of complaint, treatment and disposition. A Medline literature search was performed to obtain information on other festivals. RESULTS There were 2,231 medical contacts overall (8.9% of estimated attendees) and 217 presentations to the medical tent (0.9% of estimated attendees). 53% of patients presenting to the medical tent were men and the mean patient age was 25 years. Lacerations (16, intoxication (13, local infections (12 and soft tissue injuries (9 were the most common problems. There were no deaths or cardiac arrests. CONCLUSION Problems encountered were similar to other music festivals, with minor injuries predominant.
BibTeX:
@article{Yates2001,
  author = {Yates, K M and Hazell, W C and Schweder, L},
  title = {Medical care at the Sweetwaters Music Festival},
  journal = {The New Zealand Medical Journal},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {114},
  number = {1129},
  pages = {162--164},
  note = {PMID: 11400924},
  url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11400924}
}
Yazawa, K., Kamijo, Y., Sakai, R., Ohashi, M. & Owa, M. (2007), "Medical Care for a Mass Gathering: The Suwa Onbashira Festival", Prehosp Disaster Med. Vol. 22, pp. 5.
Abstract: Introduction: The Suwa Onbashira Festival is held every six years and draws
approximately one million spectators from across Japan. Men ride the
Onbashira pillars (logs) down steep slopes.At each festival, several people are
crushed under the heavy log. During the 2004 festival, for the first time, a
medical care system that coordinated a medical team, an emergency medical
service, related agencies, and local hospitals was constructed.
Objective: The aims of this study were to characterize the spectrum of
injuries and illness and to evaluate the medical care system of this festival.
Methods: The festival was held 02 April–10 May 2004. The medical records
of all of the patients who presented to an on-site medical tent or who were
treated at the scene and transported to hospitals over a 12-day period were
reviewed. The following items were evaluated: (1) the emergency medical system
at the festival; (2) the environmental circumstances; and (3) patient data.
Results: All medical usage rates are reported as patients per 10,000 attendees
(PPTT). A total 1.8 million spectators attended the festival during the 12-
day study period; a total of 237 patients presented to the medical tent (1.32
PPTT), and 63 (27%) were transferred to hospitals (0.35 PPTT). Of the
total, 135 (57%) suffered from trauma—two were severely injured with pelvic
and cervical spine fractures; and 102 (43%) had medical problems including
heat-related illness.
Conclusions: Comprehensive medical care is essential for similar mass gatherings.
The appropriate triage of patients can lead to efficient medical coverage.
BibTeX:
@article{Yazawa2007,
  author = {Kazuyuki Yazawa and Yukihiro Kamijo and Ryuichi Sakai and Masahiko Ohashi and Mafumi Owa},
  title = {Medical Care for a Mass Gathering: The Suwa Onbashira Festival},
  journal = {Prehosp Disaster Med},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {22},
  pages = {5},
  url = {http://pdm.medicine.wisc.edu/Volume_22/issue_5/yazawa.pdf}
}
(1999), "The event safety guide -- A guide to health, safety and welfare at music and similar events." HSE Books.
Abstract: Revised to align with recent law changes and event industry best practice. Provides 'tried and tested' advice on which to organise health and safety at music events, although many chapters may also apply to other gatherings sharing similar characteristics. Intended to enable organisers, local authorities, emergency services and HSE to work together to improve safety. As such, this guidance was devised in consultation with an event industry working group. In addition to broader safety headlines, such as venue and site design, fire procedures and major incident planning, the guidance also scopes pertinent circumstantial issues. Accordingly, specifics like transport, barriers, electrics, refreshments, merchandising, amusements, attractions, sanitation, noise, vibration and many other relevant subjects are also considered.
BibTeX:
@manual{HSE1999,,
  title = {The event safety guide -- A guide to health, safety and welfare at music and similar events.},
  publisher = {HSE Books},
  year = {1999},
  note = {ISBN 9780717624539},
  url = {http://books.hse.gov.uk/hse/public/saleproduct.jsf?catalogueCode=9780717624539}
}
(2009), "Guidelines for concerts, events and organized gatherings"
BibTeX:
@techreport{Guidelinesconcerts2009,,
  title = {Guidelines for concerts, events and organized gatherings},
  year = {2009},
  url = {http://www.rgl.wa.gov.au/ResourceFiles/Publications/EventsGuide2009.pdf}
}

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